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中国需高度警惕耕地白色污染

中国的农民在大量使用农膜、化肥、农药和除草剂等来提高土地生产力以获得短期利益。蒋高明警告说,中国须重视可持续农耕的发展来确保农产品的质量和耕地的保护。

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最近半个多月来,笔者连续在河南河北天津、山东农村考察,一个严重的现象令人忧心如焚,这就是愈演愈烈的耕地白色污染问题。北方耕地几乎被清一色的白色塑料膜所覆盖。从空中向下俯瞰,大地白茫茫一片;在高速公路两旁,白色塑料膜更是一望无际,让人仿佛来到了一个“水汪汪”的世界,真是“白色恐怖”。

田间地头,渠沟路旁,甚至大街上,农户的院落里,到处都是废弃的农膜。旧的农膜没有处理完,新的农膜又铺上了,这一奇特景观在改革开放前的农村是根本看不到的。笔者曾经实地考察过几十个国家,从来没有见到一个国家像我国这样,大张旗鼓地应用农膜。长此以往,耕作了5000多年的中国耕地将因为大量使用农膜、化肥、杀虫剂、除草剂等化学物质而毁灭。

耕地使用农膜主要有以下两个目的,一是建造塑料大棚生产反季节蔬菜或水果;二是直接铺到耕地上,生产经济价值较高的蔬菜或作物。在山东、河北农村,笔者了解到,目前农民种地,除了玉米、小麦等大宗作物外,种花生、土豆、西瓜、大蒜、茄子、辣椒、黄烟等等,几乎毫无例外地覆盖农膜。

据农民介绍,土地覆盖农膜后,由于改善了土壤温度、湿度,生长季节可以延长,产量能够提高20%到50%,个别作物甚至可使产量翻倍,如花生等。通过覆盖农膜增加产量是农学家的新技术发明,但是,谁也没有考虑到的是,我们的生态环境能够承受多少农膜污染?目前,我国每年约50万吨农膜残留在土壤中,残膜率达到40%。这些农膜在15-20厘米土壤层形成不易透水、透气很差的难耕作层。

尽管勤快一点的农民,会将农膜从地里挑出,但他们仅仅是将农膜从自己家的土地扔到地头而已。据说有人专门来收集废弃农膜,但是,因为农膜轻而沾满了土,回收利用价值并不大,因此,没有人愿意收这种废品。当农膜积累多了以后,农民们大多是一把火点燃了之。然而,他的这把火带来的是更加严重的污染

A sea of plastic can be seen across China's fields

那些自然界不能分解的有机化合物,被称为持久性有机污染物(POPs)。2004年正式生效的国际《斯德哥尔摩公约》,把艾氏剂、狄氏剂、异狄氏剂、滴滴涕、七氯、氯丹、灭蚁灵、毒杀芬、六氯代苯、二恶英、呋喃以及多氯联二苯12种化合物列为首批对人类危害极大的POPs,在世界范围内禁用或严格限用。它们在自然界中滞留时间很长(最长可在第七代人体中检测出),毒性极强,可通过呼吸和食物链进入人体,导致生殖系统、呼吸系统、神经系统等中毒、癌变或畸形,甚至死亡。焚烧农膜极易产生上述12种POPs的至少5种,即列在清单上的后5类。

十年前,农业部和科技部的官员希望科学家们尽快拿出降解农膜的方案,筛选特殊的微生物来分解农膜。遗憾的是,至今令人兴奋的消息不多。虽不断有人传言研制出了可降解农膜,但是,因其价高质劣,农民根本不用。这里,主管官员和科学家们都犯了个常识性的错误――农膜是自然界根本不存在的东西,哪里有什么微生物愿意“吃”它们?为什么不研究替代措施或者制定政策,让老百姓停止使用农膜,从源头控制白色污染呢?

诚然,大量使用农膜,产量提高上去了,但是生产出来的东西不好吃了,即质量下降了。任何生命,生长有其固定的规律,本来长的慢的如果让它长的快,其代价就是质量的下降和环境的污染,表现在作物和蔬菜上就是风味下降和耕地污染。在现场,笔者看到,大蒜基部比拇指粗,这在二三十年前是根本不可能的,这是农膜和化肥的贡献。然而,据农民们反应,现在的大蒜辣味不足了。以前种蒜是用覆盖秸秆,而不是覆盖塑料膜,是用大量有机肥,而非化肥,风味的大幅度下降是必然的。

或曰,虽然风味不好了,至少产量高,农民可多卖钱,管它好吃不好吃呢。真得是这样么?实际上,农膜增产后的利润“大饼”被更多的人瓜分了,他们为农民留的部分是很少的,而风险却让农民来承担。农膜商、运输商、出口商、批发商、田间小贩、零售商,他们的眼睛早就盯好了农业增收带来的那点可怜的利润(国家减免农业税或粮食直补带来的效益很快就被农资涨价所抵消了)。农民承受了土地污染苦果,但他们永远处在社会的下层,靠提高一点产量实现增收远没有他出去打工挣的多。在沂蒙山区,笔者现场了解到的实际情况是,非常新鲜的蒜苔前天是5角一斤,昨天是4角,今天就是3角了。去年大蒜地头价是1.2元/斤,今年只有0.7元/斤,每家每户种植同样的作物,市场风险是农民根本没有办法克服的。

通过耕地铺膜并增施大量的化肥,来提高土地生产力,正如给土地吃“鸦片”,植物长快了,产量提高了,但是,土地就会对这些物质产生强烈的依赖,地越种越瘦。现在农民普遍反应“地不上大量化肥就不长庄稼”就是这个道理。那些残存在土壤中的农膜,再加上过量使用的化肥、农药、除草剂、添加剂等,将逐渐在耕地中积累,长期下去,耕地将元气大伤。

耕地是农民的命根子,我们应当像保护眼睛那样保护耕地。为了提高一点产量,鼓励农民从眼前的短期利益考虑,大量使用自然界中不曾存在的东西。农膜的泛滥就是农业部和各级政府公开推广的结果。

正确的做法不是将土地覆盖农膜变白,而是通过增加土壤有机质而使土壤变黑,即将秸秆通过牛羊等动物转化成肉、奶和肥料,肥料产生沼气提供能源后,再将沼渣和沼液还田,逐步培肥地力。增加土壤有机质,增加土壤团粒结构,依然能够改善土壤水、肥、气、热条件,这个做法是使土地持续保持高生产力,而非短期行为。增加动物生产和能源生产后,耕地所创造的价值大大高于覆盖农膜带来的效益。增加有机肥就会减少化肥用量,取消农膜覆盖就使生产成本下降,并从源头杜绝白色污染。所有这些事关农业根本出路的问题,必须引起农业部、国家环保总局、国土部、科技部等相关部门的高度重视。

总之,提高农民收入,必须采取正确的做法,增产的同时要增效,要保护耕地,减少环境污染。类似大量使用农膜这样“杀鸡取卵”式的用地不养地、反而毁地、害地的做法,不应当继续下去了。

 

蒋高明,中国科学院植物研究所首席研究员、博士生导师,联合国教科文组织人与生物圈中国国家委员会副秘书长、中国环境文化促进会理事。他提出的“城市植被”概念和“以自然力恢复中国退化生态系统”等观点得到社会各界广泛认可。

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

蒋教授写的文章

农膜做为一种技术根本没有错,错的是我们的使用方式。我们需要的提升的是农膜使用后的处理技术,更简便的,提升农民的自我耕地保护意识。我在日本,发达国家的人民自我意识强,地上扔的垃圾别人都会拣起来。农膜被乱扔,塑料垃圾被乱扔,是科学家的错吗?你好好用一个塑料袋,能用几次?十次?二十次?每个塑料带更多的循环使用,更多的集中处理,能有白色污染吗?每个人都随便使用,全世界的人都变科学家,也治理不好这个问题,人的问题,是政治家的事情话说回来,这农膜并不是太难讲解了,而是太容易坏了,农民本来赚钱少,如果农膜能好好的多次使用,农民会乱扔吗?
“农膜是自然界根本不存在的东西,哪里有什么微生物愿意“吃”它们?”,这句话更可笑,生物降解的机理不用我来解释。要找一个保温保湿又能生物降解的膜,并不是难事,难的是如何降低成本。

Lichen

Prof. Jiang's article

As a technological product, plastic membrane should not be blamed. Instead, it is the way we use causing the problems.

What we need to do is to help farmers know how to deal with used plastic membrane. The simplest way is to help increase farmers' awareness of land protection.

I am now in Japan. People in developed countries have strong self-awareness, say a person will pick up the rubbish littered by somebody else.

Used plastic membrane and plastic bags are scattered randomly in China. Should scientists be blamed for this phenomenon?

A plastic bag could be used for 20 times it is used in a proper way. Is it possible for the "white pollution" to prevail if centralized recycling of plastic membrane and bags is on an increase.

If everyone just uses plastic products in a free-and-easy attitude and without any sense of recycling, the white pollution problem could be not resolved even all people in the world become scentists.

Human issue belongs to political category.

If plastic membrane could be used for several times, do you think peasants will easily throw them away.

In the article, Pro. Jiang said: "plastic membrane is not something that can be dealt with by the natural world." This is unreasonable opinion and thus laughable. As you know, it is not difficult to get heat- and damp-preserving, degradable plastic. The difficulty is how to reduce the cost for the product. Lichen

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

回复评论1

有趣的评论,Lichen, 但是我不太同意。“农膜没有错,错的是我们的使用方式。”这让我想起美国的亲枪议员们经常挂在嘴上的那句“枪不会杀人,是人杀人。”...恕我直言,我觉得两者同样存在谬误。毕竟,如果可以生产生物可降解的塑料,或使用更可持续的材料,为什么不呢?越来越多的发达国家已经开始意识到在减少塑料使用量的问题上意识培养收效有限,削减塑料垃圾的最佳方案就是一禁了事:毕竟,塑料袋是耗费自然资源、耗费能量生产创造出的垃圾,会让海洋生物消亡,让陆地垃圾激增。为什么在农用塑料问题上干脆用同样方法解决呢?

Re: comment 1

An interesting comment Lichen, but I find myself disagreeing.

"Plastic membrane should not be blamed. Instead, it is the way we use causing the problems."

This reminds me of the "guns don't kill people, people do" argument that is so often used by the pro-gun lobby in the US... and with all due respect, I think it is equally fallacious. After all, if biodegradable plastic can be manufactured, or more sustainable materials can be used, why should they not be?

More and more places in the developed world have been realising that the impact of awareness-raising is limited in reducing plastic use, and the best option to reduce plastic waste is simply to ban plastic bags outright: after all, the bags use up natural resources, consume energy to make, create litter, choke marine life and add to landfill waste.

Why not simply do the same with plastic used for agricultural purposes?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

我们有解决“白色污染”的魔方

蒋教授,您好!看过您写的这篇文章后,对您的这种忧国忧民的责任心肃然起敬。因为我们这几年也一致力为于解决“白色污染”,尤其是为如何消除地膜污染而努力,因此对目前的地膜污染深有同感。  不过,蒋教授,我要告诉您一个好消息,英国WELLS塑料公司已经成功研发了一种“神奇”的含氧-完全生物降解添加剂,可以使塑料制品在完成其使用寿命后12-24个月之内完全降解成水和二氧化碳,而且不会对土壤和动植物造成毒害,可以从根本上解决“白色污染”。我们可以不用再为地膜污染而烦恼了!
从06年开始,我们就开始在咱们中国推广这种技术。目前在地膜方面,山东青岛,潍坊,苍山等地区,还有新疆兵团已经开始试用。该技术的先进之处不仅是其可以给塑料带来完全生物降解的特性,而且可以通过调整添加剂的配方和添加比例,根据农作物的生长周期设定降解时间。
另外,由于其加工方法和加工条件,设备等与添加其他母料比如色母料相同,而且无需增加很多成本,因此深深受地膜加工厂和老百姓的欢迎。
我们现在还在采集各地的实验数据,希望我们能够一起把这项先进的生物降解技术在中国推广,为保护耕地和环境做出贡献。
Diana Zeng
(MSN:[email protected])

We have the power to deal with "white pollution".

Hello, Prof. Jiang! After reading your article, I'm very grateful that you have such a responsible attitude towards national and public issues. I share your concerns for the current pollution caused by plastic menbrane, because we've been working on the "white pollution" problem for years and have paid special attention to the mitigation of plastic pollution.

However, Prof. Jiang, I have a piece of good news for you. A British plastic company called WELLS has already developed a "magic" additive with oxygen included which is fully biodegradable. It can turn plastics into water and carbon dioxide fully, within 12-24 hours after the expiration of their validity, causing no harm to the soil, plants and animals, thus fundamentally resolving the issue of "white pollution". We can stop worrying about membrane pollution from now on!

Since the year 2006, we have started the application of this technology in China. In case of membrane, currently, it has been used in Shandong (Qingdao, Weifang, Cangshan, etc.) and in a military settlement in Xinjiang. The advantages of this technology include not only the introduction of full biodegradability, but also the control of its timing by changing the portion of different ingredients in its formula.

Furthermore, it is also a technology that welcomed by plastic processing factories and the general public, for it requires absolutely the same processing methods, conditions, equipment, etc. as that of adding other masterbatches like colour masterbatch, and it requires no big increase in costs.

We are still collecting data from experiments in different places. Hopefully we can work together to promote this advanced biodegradable technology in China, making contributions to the protection of farmland and the environment.

Diana Zeng (MSN: [email protected])

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

用禁止来解决问题

用禁止来解决问题,永远是最有效,也是最愚蠢的方式。污染如同洪水,应用导不用堵。同样用枪支也比较,你禁来枪支,还有刀剑,你禁了刀剑,还有石头,你可以收缴人类的武器,却不能抚平人心的仇恨。
我在为塑料袋辩护,同样也是在为科技进步辩护。我们提倡环境主义,不是提倡回归原始社会。
Lichen

Prohibition is useful way?

Using prohibitions has always been the most effective, but also the most foolish way of handling a problem. Pollution is much like a flood: what starts as necessity becomes unstoppable. The same for example, goes for distribution of guns. If you were to prohibit guns, there would still be knives. If you were to prohibit knives, there would still be stones. You could confiscate all the objects known to humankind, but you could still not eradicate the hatred in people’s minds. I am defending the use of plastic bags in the same way I am also in favour of technological advance. We advocate environmentalism, not regression to a primitive society. Lichen

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

中国农村耕地堪忧

1、白色污染随处可见
2、耕地面积逐年减少
3、土壤污染严重
4、干旱洪涝越来越多

Concerns about China's farmland

1. White pollution is everywhere.
2. The amount of farmland is shrinking.
3. The soil suffers serious pollution.
4. The frequency of droughts and flooding is on the rise.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

农民对生产方式的认识

农民并非不能觉察到现行的杀鸡取卵式生产方式是不科学的,他们有天然的直觉来判断生产方式的优劣。然而,他们耕种的土地并没有多少保障,屡见不鲜的非法征地事件和中央政策在基层的扭曲。要是这片土地明年就说不定不属于你了,那么谁还会去选用有长远收益的生产方式呢?

Peasants' understanding of production means

Peasants are not unconscious at all of the current unscientific production means of killing the goose that lays the golden eggs.

By instinct, they could judge any production means.

But they cannot ensure the ownership of farmlands. Unlawful expropriation of farmlands and local distortion of polices made by the Central Government are commonplace in China.

If you know you will lose your farmlands next year, do you think you will choose a production mean with a long-term yield.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

禁止不行

白色污染在我们周围越来越普遍 ,我觉得应该尽快研制出可以快速降解的塑料袋及一次性饭盒才是可行之道,以目前情况,靠禁止是绝对不行的!

Cannot count on abandonment

White pollution is more and more common around us. I believe we can only resolve the issue with better R&D, developing plastic bags and disposable lunch boxes that are degradable within a short period of time. Given the status quo, to simply abandon plastics is a way that'll never work!

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

解决问题

既然存在就有其存在的道理,禁止是不行的,但也不能无节制,尽快的是找到解决的问题。

Issues to resolve

Things happen for a reason. Prohibition doesn't work, and the absence of controls don't work either. The shortcut is first to identify the issues to resolve.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

治理白色污染要靠立法

从1980年前老鼠药开始滥卖到约2003年政府的对此的治理和有力打击,使卖鼠药者不敢在街市上公开设摊,进而转入地下,到现在基本看不到卖鼠药的了。可见,政治、法治是何等有效。

现在要治理白色污染,光靠宣传于百姓不行,靠自觉更不行,自觉性的養成需要很长时间,等到大多数中国人自觉了,造成的损失已无法挽回。只有决策者认识到白色污染的久远、严重的危害性,立法治理白色污染,象禁售毒鼠药那样禁售白色垃圾,白色污染就能停止。
报纸杂志上说的白色污染的危害有二。

一、 视觉污染。
二、 潜在危害。

我认为主要是破坏生态环境。塑料蒙盖的地表,草木不能生长。我村有块洼地,常年积水,夏天的夜间能听到蛙鸣。近年来,水面遮满了包装塑料和塑料袋,阻断了水和空气的接触,水下生物窒息而死,夏夜已听不到青蛙的叫声。如果中国大陆上消灭了象青蛙一类的生物,这多么可惜。

中国的大片耕地上,使用地膜复盖法种庄稼。每年约有50万吨农膜残留在耕地里,这是最大的白色污染。长此以往,将导致我们赖以生存的土地报废。这样种地,比杀鸡取蛋的做法还差。

Legislation is needed to deal with white pollution

Before 1980, rat poison was sold illegally; now it's hard to see those who are selling it--in 2003 government took this seriously and took some measures to fight against those dealers, and the sellers stopped selling poison in the open air, the industry became an underground industry. So, we can see how the manipulation by politics and law is so effective. Now to deal with white pollution, it's not enough to depend solely on education among people and, even worse, on self-scrutiny--the development of self-scrutiny needs a long time and it would be too late to cover the losses by the time that most chinese are more aware. Only if the policy-makers realize the damage of white pollution can we stop it. There are two kinds of damage from white pollution: visual one and potential one. I deem the main damage is the deterioration of the environment. Plastics can stop the growth of grasses and trees. In my village, there is shallow land covered by water all year around; we can hear the croaking of frogs in summer night. Nowadays, the water has been covered by plastics, cutting the water from air, so the living things under water has died from suffocation, and we can no longer hear the croaking of frogs during summer nights. If such creatures like frogs would be wiped out from China's vast land, that would be a great pity.In China, we use the earth membranes to grow grains, as a result there are about 0.5 million tons agricultural membranes left over on the earth, which is the greatest white pollution. Times flies and we would finally lose our land on which we depend. To grow grains like this has no differences with the deeds like killing the hens for eggs.

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匿名 | Anonymous

“农作物地衣种植法”能杜绝耕地的白色污染

您好 蒋先生!
我看过您的文章“中国需高度警惕耕地白色污染”,钦佩您为国为民的行为。我有一项技术,名:农作物地衣种植法,可解您的心中之忧。使用塑料作地衣覆盖地表种庄稼,增产效果与地膜覆盖相同。地衣可完整无缺地回收,在作物成熟前后回收,可多次使用,最终还可卖废塑料,不污染耕地,又能减少投资。Diana Zeng(MSN:[email protected])所说的魔方,也远不如它。魔方再好,农民也得年年买地膜,全国也得年年把几十万吨塑料埋入土中。我们在2005年就拿到了专利受理书,但两年多了未得到批准。至使这项技术不能推广应用,至使我国的农民每年要把50万吨塑料埋入土中,不仅浪费了宝贵的资源,更严重的是污染了土地。我希望“农作物地衣种植法”能引起您的关注,希望得到众多有识之士的支持。 zhangftacz ([email protected]

Lichen can put an end to the pollution of arable land.

Dear Mr. Jiang,

I've read your article “A sea of plastic” and I strongly admire your thoughts for the country and the land.

I suggest a new technique, namely “the lichen method”, which can put an end to the white pollution of arable land.

I can explain the main issue: the use of plastic makes lichen cover the surface of crops and seeds, the resulting effects of the plastic membrane is the same.

Lichen can complete the recycling process, the ripe lichen can recycle the crops from the beginning to the end, and can do it many times. It is eventually possible to sell the plastic waste, so there's no land pollution and it's possible to reduce the cost.

The magic substance cited by Diana Zeng (MSN:[email protected]) is also inferior.

The magic substance is good, but every year the peasants have to buy the plastic membrane and the whole country has to embed hundreds of thousands of tons of plastic into the land.

In 2005 we had the patent to process books, but after two years it has not yet been approved. This is why technology will not achieve popularity and why the peasants of our land have to embed five hundred thousand tons of plastic into the land, not only wasting important natural resources, but above all polluting the soil. I hope the “lichen method” draws attention and increases support. zhangftacz ([email protected]