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素食者的生态贡献

肉类生产不仅包括对动物的残忍屠宰过程,而且还对中国乃至全球脆弱的生态系统造成危害。蒋劲松呼吁人们成为素食者, 以选择绿色环保生活方式。

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不必列举类似太湖蓝藻爆发这样的轰动事件,现在几乎每天我们都可以从新闻中看到生态危机的消息。也许在全球范围内,人类今天面临的最严峻的挑战就是如何保护赖以生存的生态环境的问题。

科学技术的发展,也许是人们首先想到的答案。但是,事实告诉我们,仅仅依靠科技是根本不能解决问题的。除非我们愿意改变生活方式,否则科技的进步只会加速生态环境破坏的步伐。

过去的山民也许要花一天的时间才能将一棵参天大树伐倒,而要将这棵大树加工成木材,并运到遥远的首都去修筑宫殿更是需要经年累月的漫长工夫。可是,现代化木材加工工业可以迅速地将一片原始森林夷为平地,遮天蔽日的森林顷刻化为实木地板和各种家具。更不用说古人对于山神树怪的敬畏,使得他们仅有的那点技术和生产能力也不能充分利用。而现代人对于一切“迷信”的扫荡,使得人们在资本的驱使之下贪婪而无所畏惧,总是要充分利用一切的技术能力,并且竭力研发新技术,向自然榨取最后一点利益。

从这一角度看,素食者的生活方式在道德上是高尚的。因为,素食不仅直接避免了动物的杀害和奴役,而且也非常有利于生态保护。饲料在转化为肉食的过程中,浪费很严重,同样的土地,通过种植谷物可以养活的人口,是通过种植饲料喂养经济动物提供肉食来养活的人口的20倍。也正是由于放牧的需要,对于全球生态平衡至关重要的拉丁美洲热带雨林,成片地被转变成牧场。并且这些牧场一般都只能持续很短时间就因退化而被废弃,然后开发新的热带雨林……。每一份汉堡的代价是6.25平方米的森林。

经济动物的大规模工厂化饲养,不仅导致了大量动物的痛苦,而且造成了非常严重的污染。据统计,每生产一公斤牛肉,需要10万公升的水,排泄出40公斤的粪便。而工厂化的大规模养殖产生的粪便数量太多,远远超出了自然本身的净化和吸收能力,也无法像传统农业那样予以利用,大多直接排放进入自然界。

工厂化饲养的方法,使得全球牛的存栏量居高不下,所产生的大量甲烷,是全球温室气体的重要来源之一。这些都给本来已经非常脆弱的生态环境带来了沉重的负担。除此之外,肉食还给生态环境带来种种其他的威胁。例如,过长的食物链所造成的有毒化学物的高度富集,饲料中的药物添加剂,过度放牧造成表土流失,这些都在加剧着全球日益严重的生态危机。

在既有的价值观和生活方式下,生态环境问题非常棘手,难以解决,这已经由历史和现实再三证实了。相反,如果要调整生活方式和价值观,许多生态问题的解决却相当容易。例如,素食者不必做许多额外而辛苦的努力,只需不受肉食文化的蛊惑,调整自己的食谱,就可以轻而易举地避免上述种种对于环境的破坏。

这样的倡议,在许多人看来是非常严酷的要求,很不近人情。其实,素食并非是难以忍受的苦行。与肉食者相比,素食者更加健康,更加精力充沛。例如,奥运会短跑冠军卡尔·刘易斯就是一位素食者。而像自行车、马拉松、游泳运动等耐力项目中素食者取得好成绩的更是比比皆是。西方国家中尤其是文化程度高、注意健康的阶层中素食者比例越来越高,而在青少年中素食已然成为时尚。

中国现在许多人对素食的误解,是将为了动物保护、环境保护和健康的主动素食混同于经济窘迫情况下的被迫素食。后者当然会有营养不良的恶果发生,可那并非素食的原因,而是因为摄入的热量不足,食物单一,缺少搭配。而在主动的素食,只要摄入的热量充足,注意营养搭配,是根本不必有营养不良之虞的。

当然,不可讳言,许多人不能接受素食,就是因为素食不能满足长期养成的肉食口味的需要。这对许多人来说的确是个考验,因为我们的口味是文化训练的产物,我们在很大程度上已经习惯了肉食烹调的滋味,往往不假思索地认定素食是劣等的食物,口味一定逊于肉食。其实,只要讲究一点烹饪的技巧,对素食的加工像对肉食一样重视,是完全可以做出像肉食一样的美味的。几乎第一次去过素食餐馆的人,都会禁不住地赞叹,从来没有想到过素食可以如此美味。而且,中国的素食馆在长期的摸索过程中开发了许多道几乎乱真的仿荤菜。想要素食但一时不能忘情于肉食的人们,完全可以在满足口腹之欲的情况下,自然轻松地走向素食。不仅如此,素食作为一种生活的理念,人们完全可以根据自己的认识程度和自身情况,决定采取素食的程度和种类,决定是长期素食还是间断性的素食。

中国古代大乘佛教提倡并培养了相当普遍的素食的优良传统。然而今天,与西方发达国家相比,我国素食者的比例却远远落后,原因很多,其中之一就是对于素食在生态保护方面的贡献宣传不足。这和环保运动在中国发展的情况多少有点类似。从2000年北京大学素食文化协会成立以来,复旦大学、中山大学、浙江大学、东北师范大学等多所著名大学纷纷成立倡导素食文化的学生社团。素食运动在当今中国是一个方兴未艾的青年运动,是一个主要由具有社会责任感和环保理念知识群体发起的运动。它的发展前景未可限量,值得每一个热心环保的人去关注、认识和加入。
 

首页图片由mac_vegetarian

蒋劲松,哲学博士,清华大学科学技术与社会研究所副教授。

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

素食者的缺失

在中国佛教传统文化的背景下如此之少的素食者人口是件悲伤和令人吃惊的事。我建议在中国寺庙周围推出一些斋菜,这样会使素菜自然的被人们所接受。作为一名生活在中国的素食主义者来说,它们真是太棒了。

China's lack of vegetarians

It's a sad - and surprising - thing that there is so little vegetarianism in China, given there is a well-established tradition of Buddhist cuisine. I would recommend the meat-free (yet surprisingly convincing) dishes available near Buddhist temples around China, as a vegetarian living in China they are fantastic. -VC

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

能量消耗

生产肉类对生态的影响还反映在能量消耗方面,尤其是非再生能源.具 (New Scientist), 每生产一公斤牛肉消耗1.69亿焦耳能量.相当于一个100瓦的灯泡持续亮20年消耗的能量.这还不包括维护农机和运输消耗的能量. ZJ
http://environment.newscientist.com/channel/
earth/mg19526134.500-meat-is-murder-on-the-environment.html

Energy Consumption

Meat production is responsible for deteriorating biological system in terms of energy consumption, particularly unrenewable energy consumption. According to New Scientist,producing a kilogram’s beef consumes 169 megajoules of energy which is enough to light a 100-watt bulb for nearly 20 DAYS. The calculations did not include the impact of maintaining farm infrastructure and transporting the meat.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

能量消耗

更正:应该是100瓦灯泡连续工作20天.

Energy Consumption

Correction: it should be "to illuminate a 100w light bulb continuously for 20 days".

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

素食主义

北大的这一活动很有意义。我也提倡素食主义。但并不是不吃肉,而是少吃。 这不是一个简单的饮食习惯,更是一个道德的问题。推荐大家到网上看看素食的做法。其实素食也是很有讲究的。不是只有大鱼大肉才好吃哦!

Vegetarianism

The activities in Peking University are meaningful. I’m personally for Vegetarianism which I don’t think means diet without meat at all but as little as possible. Vegetarianism is more than an eating habit. It’s a moral choice. I recommend people to search online for recipes of vegetables which are probably more delicious than fish and meat.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

不是除了素食者就是肉食者这么简单

如果对比东西方的食谱,你会发现以米饭为主食的东方人摄取肉类要比西方人少得多;同样,以烹调方法来说,大部分的东方的主食烹调时消耗的能量也比西方动辄使用200摄氏度以上的大烘箱要少。中国素食者少并不代表中国的饮食习惯消耗更多的能量和资源。在中国和其他很多国家提供肉类需要的畜牧业对自然资源的破坏是无可置疑,但是这也和肉类需求量以及畜牧方式有关,而不应该对肉食全盘否定。我同意上面的说法,人的饮食习惯不能按照简单的按照肉食或素食来区分,而是应该根据摄取量的多少,鼓励人们少食肉。这就像开车和坐飞机旅行,这两者同样消耗能源并对气候变化有不好的影响,但我们只能说鼓励人们少开车和少坐飞机旅行,而不是完全放弃。素食者这个概念之所以遇到的阻力较大,也是部分因为这成了一个标签,一旦叫做素食者你就不能再吃肉,这是一个很大的承诺。由于没有十足把握能做到,人们就会倾向于拒绝。而如果是提倡少吃肉多吃蔬菜,我想阻力会小得多,效果也会好很多。

王韬
Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research & Sussex Energy Group
廷道尔气候变化研究中心和苏塞克斯能源研究小组

It’s not as simple as vegetarianism or meat eating

Comparing western recipes and eastern ones, you’ll find Asians whose staple food is rice eat much less meat than western people. It's also likely that in most cases eastern ways of cooking consume less energy than western methods. In China there are fewer vegetarians, but it doesn’t mean Chinese eating habits consume more energy and resource. Animal farming does have a detrimental impact on natural resources. But meat production are also responsible for the consequences; people should not deny meat completely. I agree with the idea that eating habits should not be simply divided into vegetarianism and meat eating. In my opinion, we should advocate people to eat less meat. It’s like driving and travelling by air. Both burn energy and accelerate climate change. But what we can do is to persuade people to drive less and fly less rather than deny both. Obstacles to the acceptance and spread of the concept of vegetarianism partially lie in the term, which is like a label of ‘no meat at all’. People are apt to reject the concept because they think it’s too challenging to carry out. However, if we advocate people to eat more vegetables and less meat, the concept of vegetarianism will become more acceptable.

Wang Tao, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research & Sussex Energy Group

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

大家对于素食了解得还是太少

生态保护当然不只是素食,但是不可否认素食的正面作用。提倡素食,并非要求所有人都一定要完全戒绝肉食,素食可以长期素食,可以间断素食。中国古代就有吃花斋的传统,即每月中固定几日吃素,就是为了解决许多人认同素食的价值,但由于种种原因而不能彻底实践素食的问题。而且,在戒绝肉食的种类上也有不同的等级。最关键的是,素食是个人资源的行为,不必向任何人负责,所以当然可以虽然停止素食。
蒋劲松

Little do People Know about Vegetarianism

Environmental protection is not merely vegetarianism while we cannot deny the positive effect vegetarianism has exerted on it. Advocacy of vegetarianism doesn’t require everyone to give up meat diet completely. Instead, vegetarians can keep eating vegetarian diet either consecutively or discontinuously. In ancient China, people have the habit of eating vegetarian diet at fixed dates during a month so as to solve the problem facing by many people that they agree with vegetarianism but cannot stick to vegetarian diets because of various reasons. In addition, in terms of which type of meat people should give up, there are varied scales. The key issue here is that vegetarianism is purely voluntary behaviour, without claiming responsibility to anybody. Therefore, people can cease vegetarian diet at will. Jiang Jinsong

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

更正

当然可以随时停止素食。

Correction:

People can certainly cease vegetarian diet at any time.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

提倡素食舍本逐末

文章分析的充分,可惜没抓住中国在“食”问题上的根本:不是我们肉吃多了(比肉食为主的欧美人还是少多了),而是大吃大喝特别是公款吃喝。不仅浪费资源和产生环境影响,而且消耗国家财富。

政府每年公款吃喝、铺张浪费的钱约为3000亿人民币,正好是2006年我国国家财政对社会保障投入的数字。另据国家环保局,十一五(2006-10年)我国环境保护投入将达14000亿元,平均2800亿元!还不如当官的一年吃喝掉的钱多.

政府不先带头减少杜绝公款吃喝,却让百姓吃素,行得通吗?建议教授们大学生们把智慧和能量用在对中国更切实的地方。

Vegetarianism is impractical and unreasonable

The article presents substantial analysis on the eating problem in China but fails to catch the foundation of it which is eating and drinking using public funds. Apart from wasting resource and affecting environment, it consumes national wealth. Chinese government spends 300 billion yuan on unnecessary creational activities annually which is equal to the amount of national investment in social security in 2006. Besides, according to State Environmental Protection Administration of China during the Period of the Eleventh Five Year Plan' the investment on environmental protection will reach 1,400 billion yuan which is less than the money wasted by officials. Any effort won’t work if government doesn’t set a good model by stopping burning pubic funds. Here I suggest that professors and college students devote their wisdom and passion to more practical things.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

基本不赞成

现在的寺庙都成了旅游区,和尚都承包了,上班穿制服(假纱)下班开车下山,老婆孩子席梦思,酒肉不断,俨然中产阶级派头!

Basically, I disagree

Nowadays, the temples have turned into tourist spots and the monks have won the contract to run them. They wear uniform (Buddhist robe) at work and drive down the hill after work. With wives, children, simmous bed, meat and wine, they lead a comfortable life as the middle classes.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

保护环境是大家的事

素食也不是政府提倡的。素食至少没有坏处,即使对于素食者自己而言也是更有利于健康的。我的文章没有说这是中国环境的“根本”。不能因为存在公款吃喝浪费的事就放弃其他一切有利环境的事不做。建议大家还是多从积极的角度下功夫,一味抱怨是无济于事的。
蒋劲松

Protecting environment is everyone’s responsibility

It is not the government that promotes vegetarianism. Vegetarianism is harmless and even a healthy way of life for vegetarians themselves. In my article, I didn’t mean it is the ‘root’ of environmental problem in China. We should not only focus on the problem of eating and drinking using public funds while totally ignore other environmentally friendly efforts. Therefore, I suggest everyone think about the issue from a positive perspective rather than endless complaining, which doesn’t help at all. Jiang Jingsong