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素食者的生态贡献

肉类生产不仅包括对动物的残忍屠宰过程,而且还对中国乃至全球脆弱的生态系统造成危害。蒋劲松呼吁人们成为素食者, 以选择绿色环保生活方式。

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不必列举类似太湖蓝藻爆发这样的轰动事件,现在几乎每天我们都可以从新闻中看到生态危机的消息。也许在全球范围内,人类今天面临的最严峻的挑战就是如何保护赖以生存的生态环境的问题。

科学技术的发展,也许是人们首先想到的答案。但是,事实告诉我们,仅仅依靠科技是根本不能解决问题的。除非我们愿意改变生活方式,否则科技的进步只会加速生态环境破坏的步伐。

过去的山民也许要花一天的时间才能将一棵参天大树伐倒,而要将这棵大树加工成木材,并运到遥远的首都去修筑宫殿更是需要经年累月的漫长工夫。可是,现代化木材加工工业可以迅速地将一片原始森林夷为平地,遮天蔽日的森林顷刻化为实木地板和各种家具。更不用说古人对于山神树怪的敬畏,使得他们仅有的那点技术和生产能力也不能充分利用。而现代人对于一切“迷信”的扫荡,使得人们在资本的驱使之下贪婪而无所畏惧,总是要充分利用一切的技术能力,并且竭力研发新技术,向自然榨取最后一点利益。

从这一角度看,素食者的生活方式在道德上是高尚的。因为,素食不仅直接避免了动物的杀害和奴役,而且也非常有利于生态保护。饲料在转化为肉食的过程中,浪费很严重,同样的土地,通过种植谷物可以养活的人口,是通过种植饲料喂养经济动物提供肉食来养活的人口的20倍。也正是由于放牧的需要,对于全球生态平衡至关重要的拉丁美洲热带雨林,成片地被转变成牧场。并且这些牧场一般都只能持续很短时间就因退化而被废弃,然后开发新的热带雨林……。每一份汉堡的代价是6.25平方米的森林。

经济动物的大规模工厂化饲养,不仅导致了大量动物的痛苦,而且造成了非常严重的污染。据统计,每生产一公斤牛肉,需要10万公升的水,排泄出40公斤的粪便。而工厂化的大规模养殖产生的粪便数量太多,远远超出了自然本身的净化和吸收能力,也无法像传统农业那样予以利用,大多直接排放进入自然界。

工厂化饲养的方法,使得全球牛的存栏量居高不下,所产生的大量甲烷,是全球温室气体的重要来源之一。这些都给本来已经非常脆弱的生态环境带来了沉重的负担。除此之外,肉食还给生态环境带来种种其他的威胁。例如,过长的食物链所造成的有毒化学物的高度富集,饲料中的药物添加剂,过度放牧造成表土流失,这些都在加剧着全球日益严重的生态危机。

在既有的价值观和生活方式下,生态环境问题非常棘手,难以解决,这已经由历史和现实再三证实了。相反,如果要调整生活方式和价值观,许多生态问题的解决却相当容易。例如,素食者不必做许多额外而辛苦的努力,只需不受肉食文化的蛊惑,调整自己的食谱,就可以轻而易举地避免上述种种对于环境的破坏。

这样的倡议,在许多人看来是非常严酷的要求,很不近人情。其实,素食并非是难以忍受的苦行。与肉食者相比,素食者更加健康,更加精力充沛。例如,奥运会短跑冠军卡尔·刘易斯就是一位素食者。而像自行车、马拉松、游泳运动等耐力项目中素食者取得好成绩的更是比比皆是。西方国家中尤其是文化程度高、注意健康的阶层中素食者比例越来越高,而在青少年中素食已然成为时尚。

中国现在许多人对素食的误解,是将为了动物保护、环境保护和健康的主动素食混同于经济窘迫情况下的被迫素食。后者当然会有营养不良的恶果发生,可那并非素食的原因,而是因为摄入的热量不足,食物单一,缺少搭配。而在主动的素食,只要摄入的热量充足,注意营养搭配,是根本不必有营养不良之虞的。

当然,不可讳言,许多人不能接受素食,就是因为素食不能满足长期养成的肉食口味的需要。这对许多人来说的确是个考验,因为我们的口味是文化训练的产物,我们在很大程度上已经习惯了肉食烹调的滋味,往往不假思索地认定素食是劣等的食物,口味一定逊于肉食。其实,只要讲究一点烹饪的技巧,对素食的加工像对肉食一样重视,是完全可以做出像肉食一样的美味的。几乎第一次去过素食餐馆的人,都会禁不住地赞叹,从来没有想到过素食可以如此美味。而且,中国的素食馆在长期的摸索过程中开发了许多道几乎乱真的仿荤菜。想要素食但一时不能忘情于肉食的人们,完全可以在满足口腹之欲的情况下,自然轻松地走向素食。不仅如此,素食作为一种生活的理念,人们完全可以根据自己的认识程度和自身情况,决定采取素食的程度和种类,决定是长期素食还是间断性的素食。

中国古代大乘佛教提倡并培养了相当普遍的素食的优良传统。然而今天,与西方发达国家相比,我国素食者的比例却远远落后,原因很多,其中之一就是对于素食在生态保护方面的贡献宣传不足。这和环保运动在中国发展的情况多少有点类似。从2000年北京大学素食文化协会成立以来,复旦大学、中山大学、浙江大学、东北师范大学等多所著名大学纷纷成立倡导素食文化的学生社团。素食运动在当今中国是一个方兴未艾的青年运动,是一个主要由具有社会责任感和环保理念知识群体发起的运动。它的发展前景未可限量,值得每一个热心环保的人去关注、认识和加入。
 

首页图片由mac_vegetarian

蒋劲松,哲学博士,清华大学科学技术与社会研究所副教授。

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

减少食肉,有益健康

我十分赞同本文关于素食者是人道的,有助于大量减少能源消耗及解决环境问题.我最近已经将吃肉的数量减为每周一次,我并不觉得有什么不妥.中国作为一个发展中国家,她需要经过这么一个过程才能使她的人民意识到将全世界的利益放在个人利益之前的重要性.有很多证据可以说明这一点.当一部分人首先富起来后,大多数都先考虑到满足个人的利益需求.其中包括消费以前消费不起的珍贵食物,甚至包括一些稀有濒危动物.所以希望人们为保护环境减少对肉类的消费还需要一个长期缓慢的过程才能实现.但如果以高知名度的专家以科学证据来宣传少吃肉对健康的益处,恐怕人们更愿意相信和听从.

Consume less Meat for your health

I agree with your article that vegetarianism is very humane, and could help to reduce energy consumption greatly and help out the environment. I have recently reduced the amount of meat that I consume, and I only eat meat about once a week now, and I feel good about it.
I think that China as a developing country needs to go through a cycle before its people reaches the state that they start to think in terms of the world at large as a whole instead of putting their own welfare first. This is evident in many ways they behave in public. As part of the population is becoming very wealthy, most of these people are first going to fulfill their personal desires first. Some of these includes consuming rare and exotic foods they or their parents could not afford previously, and unfortunately some of these foods even include endangered animal species. So it will be a slow process to get people to consume less meat for the sake of the environment. However, if you promote health as the reason to eat less meat, with scientific evidence from highly reputable experts, people are more likely to listen because they would be directly affected by the outcome.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

有点意思-我完全赞同

在我的Western大学,除了遵从指令,实践技能是得不到嘉奖的。我得到的建议是吃好、把精力放到书本上。事实上,地球要求我们自己种植食物并想方设法降低消费。就像前面针对非必要生产的评论说的,我也认为不买那么多肉我也可以一样开心。本

Interesting - I agree entirely

At my Western University, practical skills are not rewarded apart from following instructions. I am advised to eat well and focus on books. In reality, the planet demands that I grow my own food and find ways of consuming less. Just like the previous comment pointed to unnecessary production, I agree that I can be happy without buying lots of meat.
Ben

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

吃素

可以提倡健康饮食,少吃肉对人有好处.

Vegetarianism

It is good to advocate healthy food; eating meat less can bring many benefits. - Reader

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

中国需要更多的素食者

非常同意蒋先生的观点,不仅如此,我还是2年多素食的实践者。
如果您一旦长期素食,会发现肉食这种依赖其实是:1)大可不必,你会发现肉食其实很难吃;2)素食的利益不仅仅是环境,对自己的利益更大。
所以,素食是应该大大提倡的。
如果说到腐败和大吃大喝,以及个别寺庙出家人的事情,我觉得这个和提倡素食是两回事,我们不要转移话题。
素食看来只是一个小习惯,其实它关乎我们的地球未来,关乎环境保护,关乎身体健康,关乎长治久安。

China needs more vegetarians

I can't agree more with Mr. Jiang. What's more, I've been a vegetarian practitioner myself for more than two years. If you ever experience being a long-term vegetarian, you will know that the dependence on meat is in fact: 1)unnecessary, you won't find meat tasty anymore; 2)beneficial to not only the environment, but your own health. Therefore, the vegetarian lifestyle should be highly recommended. When we refer to corruption, wining and dining, and what some monks do in the temples, I think they are completely different from the promotion of vegetarian. We shouldn't mix them up. Being a vegetarian is a lifestyle, which is related to the future of the planet Earth, to environmental protection, to our own health, and to the peace and stability in the long term.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

减少肉食确实等于减少痛苦

素食或者减少肉食对于减少屠宰过程中造成的动物痛苦很有作用。这是每一个人都可以做的事情,不必等政府机构都做好了大家才作,实际上,如果大家都很注意帮助动物减少痛苦,减少肉食,政府机构还大吃大喝会遭到民众的鄙视。同时,大家减少肉食还充分保护了生态,政府机构还好意思我行我素么?社会变化会带来政府的变化,有好的人民一定会有好的政府。蒋老师提倡大家都来尝试素食或者减少肉食,是很好的意思呀。荒漠之风

To reduce meat-eating is indeed equivalent to reduce suffering

Vegetarianism or to reduce meat-eating are actually very much helpful in reducing the pain of animals during slaughtering process. This can be done by every one of us, not necessary to wait until it has been implemented by government. In fact, if we pay attention to reduction of meat-eating and suffering of those animals, eating and dining using public fund will be despised by the public. Moreover, we can protect our ecosystem by reducing meat-eating, do you think the government sector still be comfortable to persist in their way? The change of society will lead to the change of government behavior; good citizens definitely will have good government. Professor Jiang's encouraging vegetarianism or reduction of meat-eating is a good idea indeed. Wind of hungriness

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

我们是肉食动物

我们是肉食动物,几万年来情况都是如此。并且,要多少蔬菜才可以向70亿人提供所需的卡路里、蛋白质和营养物质?而数量相对少的肉类就可以做到。一些发贴人指出米是“神奇食品”,亚洲人吃米要比西方人吃肉食好,但是,这米是干燥的米还是水稻田里种出来的?而且,诸如玉米和食糖这类蔬菜需要大量水来种植、大量能耗来收割。

We are a meat eating species

And have been for millions of years. Additionally, how much vegetation would it take to supply 7 billion people with the calories, protein and nutrients provided by smaller portions of meat? Some posters have pointed out rice as a "miracle food" and how Asians consuming rice is superior to Westerners consuming meat, but is that rice the dry kind or the kind that requires flooded rice paddies? Also, vegetables like corn and sugar require large amounts of water to grow and a lot of energy to harvest.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

素食与环境保护没有直接关系

如果认为肉食是残忍的,那么素食同样也是残忍的。

在中国,做个素食者消耗的资源恐怕比肉食者更多!另外,必须指出,动物蛋白并非完全可以替代的,素食不应大范围提倡。

非素食者

No direct connection in between being vegetarian and environmental protection

If creophagism is consider as a cruel attitude, being vegetarian is the same. In China, perhaps resources consumed by vegetarians are more than that consumed being creophagy! Despite, one must highlight that animal protein cannot be completely substituted, hence, we shouldn’t widely promote practicing vegetarian. Non-vegetarian.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

提倡但不强迫

我已经素食近3年,觉得对环境也许有好处,也许危害更大,但是有一点可以明确:对某些人来说,素食是非常利己的事情。
我的体重从3年前的96KG降到现在的87KG,不痛苦。素食以后脑子清醒一些,神经衰弱大为好转。
同时发现自己不知不觉变换了生活的方式和习惯;过去吃饭吃什么,怎么吃,对我来说十分重要,花钱花精力,而现在却朴素自在多了。
就我个人而言,减少了大量的食物方面的开支,我也认为一定减少了对环境的索取。

encouraging but not forcing

I have been a vegetarian for nearly 3 years. I think it may be beneficial to the environment,or maybe harm will outweigh benefit,but one thing is for sure: to some people, being a vegetarian is really good to their health. My weight has been reduced form 96KG three years ago to 87KG, and the process is pain-free. Since I have been a vegetarian, I can think better and suffer much less from neurosis. In addition, I changed my habits and lifestyle unnoticeable. In the past, I had to spend time in thinking about where and what to eat , but now I am more care-free when it comes to food. Personally speaking, I think being a vegetarian costs less and ask for less from the environment.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

吃素十年的感受

本人吃素已经十年了。
之所以选择素食主义的生活方式,理由有三:
一、健身
吃素之后,感觉神清气爽,一身轻松,身体没有了污浊感。许多人误以为不吃就营养不良,但本人体重已从10年前的不足120斤增至目前的160斤,身体健康,只要搭配合理,完全可以避免营养不良!
二、净心
慈悲心得到保护,对他人及动物的痛苦敏感。始终坚持人与人之间互助互爱、和平相处的原则,反对虐待动物。
三、环保
人类为了吃肉,养了大量动物,不仅人为地破坏原有的生态平衡,草场过载造成沙漠化加剧,动物排泄物更会增加温室气体排放、污染水源,造成各种环境问题。

My feeling of being a vegetarian for 10 years

I have been a vegetarian for 10 years. I chose vegetarianism for the following 3 reasons: Firstly, health. Since I have been a vegetarian, I feel refreshed and relaxed. Many people have this misconception that vegetarianism will lead to malnutrition; however, my weigh has increased from less than 60KG to 80KG, and I am really healthy. If the diet is balanced, malnutrition can be avoided! Secondly, circumcise the mind. Stay merciful and sensitive to the pain of others and animals. Stick to the principle of mutual help/care and peaceful coexistence. Against mistreatment of animals. Thirdly, people breed animals to meet the need of meat consumption. This leads to the ecological unbalance and exacerbation of desertification, and excretion of animals will increase the emission of green house gases, pollute water resource and cause all sorts of environmental problems.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

素食与非素食的区别

1、素食制作过程和烹调方法都很简单,能源消耗非常少。
2、肉食容易腐烂,常常需要使用冷冻设备,耗电量之大可想而知。
3、肉食气味难闻,对健康不利。因摄入过多动物性食品而引发高血压等疾病。
4、现代饲养动物时,经常使用激素等生长剂、以及各种药品,食用后对人体不利。
5、受农药的蔬菜相对受污染的肉类来说,危害程度小,可预防程度高。
6、许多动物疫病因食肉而传染给人类,难以治愈。
7、在中国,因利益驱动,动物食品加工制作中存在的安全卫生问题相当严重,不容忽视。
8、中国素食者少,肉食者众,动物权利普遍不受认同,虐待、虐杀动物的现象普遍存在,与之相应的是,人与人之间的关系冷漠,缺乏基本的信任与相互关爱。

欢迎光临本人创建的公益组织交流平台——公益慈善论坛www.loongzone.com

The difference between vegetarian diet and non-vegitarian diet

1. The way of producing and cooking vegetarian food is very easy and the whole process costs very limited energy. 2. As meat vulnerable to be rotten must be frozen in refrigerators, it's easy to imagine how much electricity it will consume in the process. 3. The reak of meat is harmful to health. In addition, it will cause high-blood diseases if people have too much meat. 4. In the modern animal feeding, growth hormone and other kinds of medicines are often used, which will harm people's health if the meat is eaten. 5. Vegetables contaminated by pestcide are less harmful than polluted meat and it's easier to prevent the contamination of vegetables than that of meat. 6. The plague infected to human from eating meat is hard to cure. 7. The safety and sanitation problems in the food prodution process are still too serious to be ignored on China's mainland. 8. In a country with a large population of meat eaters like China, we are still facing problems concerning animal rights and interpersonal relations. The phenomena such as maltreating animals are common, which implies that the animal rights aren't widely knowledged and respected. Meanwhile, people are lack of the least mutual confidence and cares, which signfies the indifferent interpersonal relations in our society.