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幻灯图片:北京的空气污染

随着2008年奥运会的临近,北京烟雾弥漫的天空引发了运动员们对中国首都空气污染的担忧。驻在北京的摄影记者韶华拍摄了一组令人难忘的照片来说明这一问题。

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编者按: 这辑照片由英籍驻北京摄影师韶华(Sean Gallagher)于2008年6月26日至7月2日期间所拍摄。所有照片均在北京拍摄,其中大部份照片所描述的车辆,已被长期放置或废弃在北京市中心 的立交环线公路下面。在这组照片中,摄影师并不是要展示出一般在北京行驶的车辆,而是利用废弃的车辆作为静物,藉此说明北京空气中所含的沙尘数量。空气中 部份的沙尘是来自沙尘暴,但就正如摄影师在评论中所,相当一部份的沙尘是由于发展快速的建筑业所致。

背景介绍: 中国的空气污染

世界上污染最严重的20个城市中有16个在中国。中国有5亿多的城镇人口,他们中的很多人生活在如首都北京一样空气受严重污染的环境中。在这些城市中,大众的健康也因此而受到损害。

据美联社报道,联合国环境署的官员埃里克•佛特去年10月就指出说,煤炭的大量使用,城市的地理位置,以及汽车数量的大量增长,所有这些意味着北京空气质量改善的速度不会很快。他还说,特别令人担忧的是大气中的颗粒物含量,这是对公众健康造成危害的最大因素。

世界卫生组织的空气污染指数是对大气中化学物质的浓度和尘粒的测量。世界卫生组织同时建议空气污染指数的每日最大安全值为50。然而2008年5月北京的每日空气污染指数的平均值却为131。其中,5月27号的该数值更是达到了463的峰值,这也是世界卫生组织所公布的安全指数标准的9倍多!

北京奥运会日益邻近,人们,特别是运动员,也越来越关注北京的空气质量。他们中甚至有人建议在比赛的时候戴口罩,在别的不同的国家进行赛前训练,或甚至是退出比赛项目等。

不论奥运会前或者期间将会发生怎样的改变,该运动会结束后,北京的居民还将继续生活在烟雾弥漫的天空之下。中国环境规划院说,在2003年,中国有40多万人因空气污染而过早死亡。

 

韶华(SEAN GALLAGHER)是一位来自英国的摄影师,现居在北京。他的拍摄工作重点是亚洲的环境和社会问题,其中以中国为重点。了解更多他的作品,请浏览个人主页http://www.gallagher-photo.com/

 
所有文字和照片版权归属© Sean Gallager Photography
 

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评论 comments

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

驳真实性

同意评论编号10,大家所驳斥的并不是照片表现的东西,而是本文作者在照片后的说明性文字。评论编号9 的评论者,你是否生活在北京?

Aganist the comment "Veracity"

I agree with Comment No. 10. What we all argue against is not the problem these photos are trying to reveal, but the caption that follows the photos.

May I ask the No. 9 commentator: do you live in Beijing?

(This comment is translated by Zheng Shen.)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

请来北京看看吧

谎言止于真相,大家如此争论意义不大,不如来北京看看,住上一年半载就清楚了。北京的空气污染很严重,但像照片中如此严重的污染,一年也就春天沙尘暴时有个两三天。文字说明没有说清楚这个,的确有误导之嫌。

Please come and see it for yourself

Lies cannot fly in the face of truth. It is pointless to argue over the authenticity of photos like that. To find out the truth, why not one come and live in Beijing for a year or two? Beijing does suffer from serious air pollution, but certainly not to the extent depicted in the photos. Sandstorms only happen for a few days in Spring. The captions of the photos don't clarify the situations surrounding the photos. To some degree they are misleading the audience.
(Comment translated by Yang bin)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

关于照片的真实性

为了那些对照片真实性提出质疑的读者,我核实了原照的内嵌数据。这种数据是绝对真实,无法作假的。数据证实照片都是在过去的三个星期之内拍摄。如有想亲自证实真实性的读者,请给我发电子邮件索取,我很乐意把数据的截图发给各位。 邮件地址: [email protected]
----Sam Geall “中外对话”副总编
(本评论由Zheng Shen翻译)

Veracity of photos

For the benefit of our readers who have raised questions, I checked the embedded data in the original photographs (this cannot be faked) and can confirm they were all taken in the past three weeks. Any readers who would like to confirm this for themselves can email me on [email protected] and I'm happy to send a screenshot of the data. -- Sam Geall, chinadialogue deputy editor

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

再说真实性

评论编号13,我并不怀疑照片的真实性。如果用一张垃圾场的照片来说明一个城市很脏,照片当然是真实的,但问题是这样的表达方式准确吗?如果你想证明其表达的准确性,那就让作者把照片的周边环境展示出来,自会说明问题。
刘韶杰
[email protected]

On Veracity

To Comment No. 13, I don't doubt the veracity of these photos. But if photos taken near a rubbish dump are used to show that the whole city is dirty like that, the problem lies elsewhere. Is this way accurate enough to convey the intended information?

If you want to show the accuracy, please ask the author to unveal the surroundings of the spot where the photos were taken. That will do the job.

Liu Shaojie [email protected]
(This comment was translated by Zheng Shen)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

照片的真实性

事实上,我并不怀疑照片的真实性。我知道在很多地方都可以拍出这样的照片。照片中的车辆显然很老旧并且看上去已经有一段时间未被使用了,而那些自行车也是长期废弃的。我们不能说北京没有污染,但是情况正在好转。我们需要看到并承认这一进步。

然而,在现在这种时刻,看到这一系列照片还是令我很不满。它们会给那些不了解真相的人留下北京的空气充满沙土的错觉。
(本评论由Zheng Shen翻译)

veracity of photos NO. 13

Actually, I have no doubt in the veracity of the photos, and I know there are many places to get many pics like these. It is clear that many of the cars are old and unused for sometime, and the bikes are desserted for a much longer time, I think. We cannot say Beijing is not polluted, but it is gettting better. We need to acknowledge and admit it.

However, pics like these in a series do piss me off, especially during such a period. The pics will leave ignorant people the impression that the air is filled with earth!

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

亲爱的读者们:

很高兴能够读到你们的评论,我是这篇报道和照片的作者,在此想对上面的一些评论做出回应。我可以保证这些照片在大约三周之前于北京拍摄。

照片绝对真实,并不是什么“伎俩”,也并非意图误导读者。空气污染问题在北京显而易见。所以,它也需要以一种较新颖的,能够引人注目的表现方式来强调。烟雾弥漫的天空与把自己包裹起来防风沙的行人的画面已经司空见惯,读者也产生了视觉疲劳。反映这些现象的照片已不再能明显迅速的让人们从视觉上真正理解空气污染的后果。作为一个摄影师。一定要挑战并革新我们看待事物的方法,并从一个新颖的,能引起别人关注的角度来表现事物。

这些汽车在户外被放置了几个星期,就在市中心的立交环线公路下面。这种情况典型么?当然不。没有多少人把车像这样长期遗弃。但是,静物是空气中特定物质含量的最佳体现。没错,它们在那里停留的时间越长,上面的沙土就会越积越多。但这些累积的沙土是从哪里来的呢?空气。(未完待续)
(本评论由Zheng Shen翻译)

Dear Readers,

It is with great interest that I read your comments. I am the author of the piece and wanted to respond to a few of the comments above. To confirm, the photos were taken approximately 3 weeks ago here in Beijing.

These photos are not ‘a trick’. They are not intended to mislead the viewer. Air pollution is an obvious problem in Beijing and is one that needs to be highlighted in a new and interesting way. Pictures of smoggy skies and masked pedestrians have long tired the eyes of readers, dulled to really visually understanding effects of air pollution. As a photographer, you must challenge the way we view issues and present them in a new and interesting light.

These vehicles have been left standing in the open air for weeks at a time, under the raised ring roads, in the very centre of the city. Is this typical? No. It is not typical for people to leave their cars like this, but nevertheless, static objects are the perfect things to illustrate the amount of particulate matter in the air. Yes, the longer they stand, the more likely they are to gather dust/sand etc. But where does this dust/sand that is accumulating come from? The air.

(cont’d)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

(续上)

一些评论中提到了沙土。今年,北京的沙尘暴的确很少。需要说明的是,沙子,是一种颗粒物质(PM)。测量空气污染物的不同组成成分含量等级时,它被归为颗粒物质。因此,沙子的确是空气污染的一种形式。沙尘暴并不是空气中沙子的唯一来源。在建筑工程(比如:搅拌水泥的过程)中,以及建筑物拆除时,沙子都会进入空气。即使在没有沙尘暴的时期,空气中的沙粒也在不断累积。照片中的汽车上颗粒物也显示出了不同的覆盖厚度及多种颜色。这说明照片中的现象并不单单仅由一种气象事件导致。

在过去的几天里,北京天空的确很蓝。这是积极正面的。然而,本地住户都知道,这种好消息不是天天都有,也不能证明污染问题已经解决。空气污染从某种意义上讲是个缓慢的过程,它会在汽车上或者吸入者的肺脏中慢慢积累。这些照片意图从视觉上体现此问题的严重程度,并希望我们能够更加有效的对问题进行治理和解决。
-------摄影记者韶华

(本评论由Zheng Shen翻译)

(cont'd)

Sand has been mentioned in a few comments. Beijing has suffered few sand storms this year. It must be noted that sand is a ‘particulate matter’ (PM) and is recognized as such when measuring levels of the many different components that make up air pollution. Sand IS a form of air pollution. Sandstorms aren’t the only source of sand in the air. It is put into the air as a result of construction (in the mixing of cement) and when buildings are demolished. Sand is still deposited when there are no sandstorms. The vehicles in the pictures also exhibit varying levels of thickness of cover (and colour) of particulate matter, showing that all could not be caused by one, single meteorological event.

The past few days have indeed seen blue skies in Beijing. This is positive news. As local residents know however, this is unfortunately not an everyday occurrence and is not immediate evidence the problem has gone. Air pollution is a somewhat slow process, accumulating slowly on the cars and in the lungs of those who breathe it in. These photos are intended to visually represent the seriousness of this problem, in the hope we can tackle it more effectively.

SEAN GALLAGHER - PHOTOGRAPHER

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

我想知道为什么照片是在晚上拍的?

是因为白天有警察来阻挠你?
是因为白天的尘不够突出?
还是其它原因?

因为你连那辆车在哪条街都分不清﹗
Crystal,美国
(此翻译由Canly Tseng 翻译)

I would like to ask, why were the pictures taken at night?

Is it because the police would have stopped you?
Is it because it makes the dust more dramatic?
Or is there another reason?

Because it's a shame that you can't even see the street that the vehicles are on.
Crystal, US

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

请大家相信作者和编者的善意

大家都是希望北京的空气污染状况得到尽快改善的,也请大家相信作者和编者的善意。

不过也应该请告诉我们,这些图片拍摄在具体哪一天?哪一条街道或哪一座桥下?这些车搁置了多久?

Let's believe the good intentions of the author and the editors

I am sure we all wish that the condition of the air pollution in Beijing will improve as soon as possible. So let's believe the author and the editors have good intentions.

However, it would be appreciated if you could make it clear the specific date and location (under which bridge) where those photos were taken, and how long exactly those vehicles have been left there.

( This comment was translated by Zheng Shen)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

再论照片真实性

对第9条评论的回应:大体上,和你一样,我乐于相信任何有关中国的负面信息。但是,为了使你的照片更有说服力,建议你从下述三个方面加强你观点的说理力:

(1)解释清北京的车辆号牌无论如何不能被摘下并挂到另一辆车上,特别是用于拍照的目的,因为令人遗憾的是没有一张照片显示了背景;
(2)解释清尽管没有背景,这些轿车一定是在北京的街头,因为挂有北京号牌的车辆不能开到任何其他地方;
(3)证明你本人拍照时就在北京(因为人们现在对北京的空气质量很感兴趣)或者拿出北京或中国总是一幅老样子的证据。祝 好运!

-本评论由Yang bin翻译

Varacity

On Comment #9: basically, I would like to believe in anything that is negative about China, just like you. However, to be more convincing, I recommend that you enhance your reasoning by: 1) explaining that the Beijing license plates can by no means be removed and assembled on a vehicle specially made up /chosen for the purpose of shooting, for there is regrettably no background at all in none of the pix; 2) by explaining that in spite of the lack of background, the cars must be in Beijing because cars with Beijing licence plates cannot be driven to any other places wheresoever; 3)proving that you were just in Beijing (because people are interested in the Beijing air quality now!)or of course you can bring some evidence for the changelessness of Beijing/China. Good luck!