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幻灯图片:北京的空气污染

随着2008年奥运会的临近,北京烟雾弥漫的天空引发了运动员们对中国首都空气污染的担忧。驻在北京的摄影记者韶华拍摄了一组令人难忘的照片来说明这一问题。

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编者按: 这辑照片由英籍驻北京摄影师韶华(Sean Gallagher)于2008年6月26日至7月2日期间所拍摄。所有照片均在北京拍摄,其中大部份照片所描述的车辆,已被长期放置或废弃在北京市中心 的立交环线公路下面。在这组照片中,摄影师并不是要展示出一般在北京行驶的车辆,而是利用废弃的车辆作为静物,藉此说明北京空气中所含的沙尘数量。空气中 部份的沙尘是来自沙尘暴,但就正如摄影师在评论中所,相当一部份的沙尘是由于发展快速的建筑业所致。

背景介绍: 中国的空气污染

世界上污染最严重的20个城市中有16个在中国。中国有5亿多的城镇人口,他们中的很多人生活在如首都北京一样空气受严重污染的环境中。在这些城市中,大众的健康也因此而受到损害。

据美联社报道,联合国环境署的官员埃里克•佛特去年10月就指出说,煤炭的大量使用,城市的地理位置,以及汽车数量的大量增长,所有这些意味着北京空气质量改善的速度不会很快。他还说,特别令人担忧的是大气中的颗粒物含量,这是对公众健康造成危害的最大因素。

世界卫生组织的空气污染指数是对大气中化学物质的浓度和尘粒的测量。世界卫生组织同时建议空气污染指数的每日最大安全值为50。然而2008年5月北京的每日空气污染指数的平均值却为131。其中,5月27号的该数值更是达到了463的峰值,这也是世界卫生组织所公布的安全指数标准的9倍多!

北京奥运会日益邻近,人们,特别是运动员,也越来越关注北京的空气质量。他们中甚至有人建议在比赛的时候戴口罩,在别的不同的国家进行赛前训练,或甚至是退出比赛项目等。

不论奥运会前或者期间将会发生怎样的改变,该运动会结束后,北京的居民还将继续生活在烟雾弥漫的天空之下。中国环境规划院说,在2003年,中国有40多万人因空气污染而过早死亡。

 

韶华(SEAN GALLAGHER)是一位来自英国的摄影师,现居在北京。他的拍摄工作重点是亚洲的环境和社会问题,其中以中国为重点。了解更多他的作品,请浏览个人主页http://www.gallagher-photo.com/

 
所有文字和照片版权归属© Sean Gallager Photography
 

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评论通过管理员审核后翻译成中文或英文。 最大字符 1200。

Comments are translated into either Chinese or English after being moderated. Maximum characters 1200.

评论 comments

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

不仅仅是沙尘的问题

确实大多数车辆都不像照片上这样灰头土脸,但在北京这种环境下,为了保持车辆的干净外观,需要多少水呢?

It's not just about sand and dust.

It's true that most vehicles aren't as dusty as those showed in the photos. But under a climate here in Beijing, how much water does it need to keep a car decent and clean?
(This translation was translated by Zheng Shen.)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

一种信息的表达方式

评论#10:没有人说这些照片是北京随处可见的街景,用一些有视觉冲击力的纪实的照片来表达观点,表达担忧,也是一种信息表达的方式。
我们身处中国才更应为自己的环境多做点事情,有了批评应该先想着改进,而不要总觉得这又是在攻击中国。何况照片上的情况真实发生过,作者解释的也很清楚。

A way to deliver the message

To Comment No.10, no one said the situation in those photos is typical and can be seen everywhere in Beijing. Using documentary photos with strong visual impact to express the concern is also a way to deliver the message. We in China should be the ones who are concerned about and work hard on the problems. The thought at the first sight of these photos should be how we can improve the condition, rather than take it as some malicious attack.
Plus the facts in the photos do exist and the author's explanation is quite clear.

(This comment was translated by Zheng Shen.)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

编者按

加上这个编者按我们就都清楚了,谢谢编者。不过,这样一来,标题《北京的空气污染》就有点不太妥当了,也许叫做《北京的环境卫生》更好一些。

Editor’s commentary

After adding the editor’s commentary, we all understand, my thanks go to the editor. However I think the title should be changed from “Air pollution in Beijing” to “Beijing’s environmental sanitation.” The former is not as appropriate and the latter is a little better. --Translated by Michelle Deeter

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

很明显是陈年堆放导致的结果!

很明显是陈年堆放导致的结果!
各位可以去车库看看

Obviously these result from a long time standing!

The condition in the photos obviously results from cars standing around a long time! Go to a garage and you can find a similar situation there.
(This comment was translated by Zheng Shen.)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

空气污染?

上面的很多批评意见都是理由正当的。而且尽管这是一篇主旨为空气污染的文章,照片中却没有对文章的主题——沙尘做太多表现。(沙尘真的是北京空气污染的唯一形式么?)这些照片的单调只能证明以下几点:摄影师对拍摄的环境知之甚少,或者摄影师是一贯反对中国的人,或者他只是偷懒。(要拍出这一系列照片,恐怕用不着什么技巧吧。) (本评论由Zheng Shen翻译)

Air Pollution?

A lot of the criticism here is fully justified. In addition, for an article that purports to be about air pollution the subject matter (dust) in the photos is pretty limited. (Is dust pollution really the only form of air pollution in Beijing?) The monotonous nature of the photos can only confirm a couple of points: that the photographer either knows very little about the environment, that the author is a China-basher, or he simply got lazy. (It takes very little skill, if any, to produce a series of shots like this.)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

确实

大部分这些照片中所看到的灰尘,是千百年来被刮到北京平原补充土壤的。这是一种污染,却不是同类的。这种照片很容易拍到,但摄影师没能捕捉到其他细节:比如北京居民的人均废水排放量;或者是以公斤计算人均使用的包装量。如果从北京环境的过去和未来看,我认为中国在某些方面对环境问题的想法是领先的。而中国的乡村也许能更好地反映中国的情况。每个大国都要养活其公民,而外国人的这些图片却没有看到这一点,反而造成了误导。如果你想通过这种方式赚钱,那么你尽可以像这位先生所做的,靠反映消极面而生。与之回应的是我们同时间写上正在发生的积极事件。所以首先我们需要掌握流利的语言,被人才能懂我们的话。
(Yuan.Xiao翻译)

sure

most of these pics are from dust that has been blown into the beijing plain for thousands of year replenishing the soil. There is pollution but in a different category. Too easy too shoot such pics and missing the point in for example, the avergae waste water output per resident in beijing. Or the average kg of packaging that is used by one of its 16 milj residents. If you put Beijing's environmental past and future in perspective I would say that the Chinese in some ways are way ahead of environmental thinking. Rural China might be a good starting point to reflect China in a better way. Every large nation must feed its citizens and these images are not showing foreign eyes a rather misguided picture of the middle kingdom.
If you want to make money as a foreign photographer here you can only survive with showing the negative side, like this gentleman did.
At the time we write there many positive going on and maybe try to show that. First of all you have to be sort of fluent in the language to get a better understanding.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

看清内容再评述

人家本来就说明了,以废弃车辆作为参照。本来城里好天气也只是屈指可数,不容乐观

Please comment after reading carefully

It says clearly that scrap vehicles are used in the pictures.
Anyway, there are only a handful of good-weather days in the city. Things are not looking hopeful.

(translated by Yuan Xiao)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

北京被遗忘的角落

唉,这是北京被遗忘的角落啊。这些东西挺常见的呀。北京很多立交桥下都有的。我倒觉得摄影师选的这个角度挺好的,那些常见无人打扫的,落满灰尘的汽车,对我们来说是个值得关注的问题。我想,摄影师的本意,也就是提醒大家保护环境。这种表达方式给人的感觉是很强烈的,是对我们很好的提醒呢。作者自己也说清楚了他的意思啊。我是学环境专业的,我们测过大气颗粒物,唉,做完实验滤纸都是黑的了。。。大家都开玩笑说看着滤纸觉得自己很伟大,居然可以在这样的空气里大口呼吸。北京环境保护还有很长的一段路要走咧。保护环境啊~~

Neglected corners of Beijing

What these photos feature are some neglected corners of Beijing. Very familiar sights in Beijing indeed. The scenes can be seen under many elevated overpasses in Beijing. I think it is a good thing that the photographer turned his lens toward those unattended, dusty vehicles. It is a problem we should pay attention to. Perhaps the photographer just intended to remind us of this issue. The way he did it is very dramatic. And he has made his intention clear. As a graduate, I once participated in an experiment in which we gauged the atmospheric particulates of Beijing. After we finished the test, the filter paper we used turned black. Each of us was amazed that we could breathe in such air in big draughts and didn’t fall sick. It is a long way to go for the environmental protection of Beijing.

(Comment translated by Yang bin)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

关于照片的评论

得了吧,如果北京风沙真有这么严重,你觉得什么样的生物能够在这里生存?要真是这样,那么科学家可要好好研究一下,没准他们不是人类?或者有什么特异基因?亲爱的作者韶华,如果可以的话,麻烦你在报道中尊重一下常识吧。
(本评论由Zheng Shen翻译)

Comment on photo series

Come on, what kind of creature living in Beijing could survive this kind of dust? I think the scientists should do research on this, maybe they are not human beings? Or with some special gene? My dear Sean Gallagher, please try your best to report with common sense if you have!

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

北京在夏季中没有这样的空气污染

这些照片不是在北京夏季期间拍摄,而可能是在春季黑风暴发生之后。
(本评论由Meiyou Ye翻译)

No such pollution in Beijing in summer!

These photos are not taken in summer Beijing, maybe after a spring black storm.