文章 Articles

水电环评可有可无吗?

新的经济刺激促进了中国西南地区水力发电的发展,但是对生态和社会成本提出了担忧。蒋高明对此进行了报道。

Article image

四万亿刺激经济措施出台后,中国西南山区水电开发再度升温。在四川、云南等县市,那些已规划或正在规划的水电项目,在施工进度上明显提速。甚至有些水电项目尚没通过国家工程环境影响评价(简称环评),或根本就没进行环评,也开始动工了。最近,笔者随有关媒体组成的记者考察团,在云南现场看到了下面一幕又一幕。

在华坪县观音岩、宾川县鲁地拉水电站工地,往来穿梭的施工车辆造成尘土飞扬。上述两项目不但没有通过环评,就连基本的施工防护措施都没有,也没有监理部门介入。尽管水电部门对外界声称是施工是为项目前期论证做准备的,但工人们干的却是修建施工公路、建引水洞以及坝肩等 实质性水电工程。由于没有采取防范措施,工程渣土直排金沙江,在江岸造成干热河谷生态系统破坏,在河流增加了大量泥沙类物质。更为严重的是,水电站调洪水 库是建在程海冰川断裂带上,所在的位置为脆弱山体,地质构造差,易发生山体滑坡或泥石流,并有地震隐患。2008年8月,鲁地拉水电站附件发生泥石流,造 成8人死亡。在这样地质灾害频发环境下进行水坝建设,其环境影响评价是无论如何也不能忽略的。

在永胜县阿海水电站现场,虽然没有看到野蛮施工场景(但2008年4月记者看到的还是野蛮施工现场),但是项目也是“先斩后奏”的。中国水电三局、 八局、十四局等施工单位早在三年前就陆续开始了前期工作,除了施工公路已建好外,引流洞、肩坝也基本完成,具备了蓄水条件。在记者团采访的第二天,据闻环 保部有关领导要来现场实地考察,考虑是否批准该项目。实际上,生米已做成熟饭,你批也得建,不批也得建。由于项目没有通过环评,属非法施工,工程是在秘密 状态下进行的。为增加项目的神秘性,现场竟打着“军事管理区”字样,将来访者拒之门外。玉龙县金安桥水电站干脆不理会什么环保部的环评,不仅秘密完成了引 流洞、肩坝、截流工程,而且开始装机试验了。

最早引起媒体严重关注的虎跳峡水电站,有关方面曾放弃过“一库八级”计划,但就在媒体沉浸在一片欢呼声之后不久,该下马工程又在新经济形势下“粉墨登场”了。为回避公众质疑,他们将“虎跳峡水电站”改名为 “龙盘水电站”,工程内容换汤不换药,目前正在进行勘探洞、“三通一平”(通电、通路、通水、平整土地)工程建设。如果库区坝址选在龙盘,将迫使金沙江上 游10万人移民,造成20万亩耕地淹没。这个静态投资400亿的巨大水电工程,对中央制定的18亿亩耕地红线就造成直接冲击。对该水电工程环境影响如何评 价是我们非常关心的。

怒江赛 格坝址,记者们现场看到,工人们正在进行交通洞和坝线洞施工,其中施工营地等已经完成。怒江各条支流已经承包给了开发商,开始了前期工程施工。怒江项目同 样是没有通过环评的,但是施工从几年前就陆续开始了。怒江存在的问题最多,曾因生物多样性、土壤损失、地质灾害、移民安置、“三江并流”世界遗产等问题得 到媒体广泛关注,媒体和公众试图保护中国境内最后一条没有开发的江河,但这个任务非常艰巨。亚碧罗电站坝址离世界遗产5.54公里,库尾2.72公里,马吉水库离世界遗产距离更近,坝址2.21公里,库尾仅810米。要世界遗产还是水电站,地方政府看来还是热衷于后者,寻找各种理由继续开发。

水电开发中最弱势的是土壤、植被以及奔腾的河流,其次是世世代代生活于斯的少数民族如族、傈僳族、族、普米族、藏族、纳西族 等。虽然他们表示为了国家建设而愿意牺牲个人利益,但是,他们唯一的要求是能够生存下去。在云南省丽江市石鼓镇(红军长征路上的重要渡口)、香格里拉县车 轴村,从纳西族农民的住房来看和实际生活水平看,他们已提前达到了小康水平,水电开发可能会造成他们生活贫困。从我们与农民直接交流看,大部分农民表示不 愿意搬迁。我们的疑问是既然是利国利民的项目,为什么不经过环评,公开进行呢?

水电能源开发依然要付出重大的环境与社会代价,“河流改湖”后会淹没大量耕地、自然生态系统;施工中大量泥沙物质直排江中,对下游水利工程产生危 害;“移民后靠”会加重人地矛盾,建坝和拆坝均会对局环境和上下游环境造成危害;淹没的天然植被、农田、土壤等将会向环境中释放更多的温室气体(甲烷), 因此,即使不考虑世界遗产、文化、景观等软的要素,水电开发造成的环境破坏也会对“水电是清洁能源”大打折扣。但是,目前的形势非常严峻,在云南省似乎一 切都要为水电让路。在这种形势下,环评就成了最为边缘化的摆设,地方政府和业主是将环评作为水电开发的必然成本来对待的;在他们的心目中,水电环评仅仅是 工程的一部分,他们心理清楚尚没有哪一个水电工程因环评而下马。

当我们把所有的江河生态破坏殆尽,待我们赚够了钱,回过头来再也买不到优美的生态环境。为此,我们呼吁,西南水电开发一定要权衡利弊,要充分考虑到建坝、拆坝对水生和陆地生态系统和生物多样性的影响,充分考虑社会和文化成本,以及各种地质风险,合理有序地开发水电资源。用科学发展观指导经济建设,水电环评就不能是摆设。

蒋高明,中国科学院植物研究所首席研究员、博士生导师,联合国教科文组织人与生物圈中国国家委员会副秘书长、中国环境文化促进会理事。他提出的“城市植被”概念和“以自然力恢复中国退化生态系统”等观点得到社会各界广泛认可。

首页图片My Hobo Soul

发表评论 Post a comment

评论通过管理员审核后翻译成中文或英文。 最大字符 1200。

Comments are translated into either Chinese or English after being moderated. Maximum characters 1200.

评论 comments

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

怎么办?

怎么办?怎么办?
环评在水电开发项目过程当中到底扮演着什么样的角色?是环评的无奈,还是环评的可笑?环评就能够解决和缓解水电开发的影响了。
生态环境,生物多样性,这些概念对于改革者和开发者来说,没有任何意义。

What shall we do?

What shall we do? what is the role EIA played during the hydropower projects? Is it powerless or foolish? Could the EIAs alleviate environmental impact hydropower projects made? Besides, the reformers and the developer have little understanding of such concepts as ecosystems and biodiversity.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

kaka

我获得了环境管理与发展的硕士学位,也学了很多环评的技术。我也写过关于怒江水电项目相关的文化保护的文章。遗憾的是中国还是老样子。问题出在哪?在大坝项目中,我看不到环境保护法的强制执行。我不是这方面专家,不能对此指手画脚。但很遗憾看到为了多数人的利益,少数人不得不做出牺牲。是否有人能回答我的问题?问题出在哪儿了?环评不是什么新事物,可持续性意味着所有人以及子孙后代的长期利益。

kaka

I obtained a graduate diploma of Environmental Management and Development,have learned a lot about EIA process. Wrote an essay about cultural preservation related to Nujiang hydrapower project....sadly to see that everything is the same in China. What is the real problem? I can't see any enforcement of Environmental Law in those dam (damn...) projects. I am not a professional in this area, so can not point my fingure on this issue, but I am sad to see that for the majority's sake, the minority has to sacrifice...

Anybody answer my question? What is the real issue? EIA isn't a new thing, sustainability means long term benefit for everybody and next generation...

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

wxai

又见到蒋老师的文章。对于这篇文章的呼吁我是非常赞佩,按照环评法的规定,只要是建设项目,就该进行环评。环评起什么作用,就是要预测和估计项目建成后对环境的影响,以此作为是否能上马项目的考量。
环境的问题其实本身也是经济社会发展的问题。我们该深究是为什么他们不做环评,这是学者们该关心的问题。在我看来,环评及批复作为否定一个项目的程序来说,建设单位就有冒风险先斩后奏的可能性,如果环评如果只是作为项目整体评估的一个方面,在法律约束条件下,焉有不做之理?
现在的环评的缺陷,一是作为行政审批的武器之一否决项目;二是环保部管理环评的人,把环评工作和技术复杂化。其二的弊端,请蒋老师翻开一本水电环评报告书看看,那里还有环保部真该管理的东西。三是,对生态环境的评估要么非常弱化,要么非常玄虚,当环评真要非常客观的,简短的,定量的,定性的技术结论的时候,这些都是模棱两可的话。这给审批又带来难以审批,继而进入恶性循环。
我的建议,请蒋老师,认真研读基本水电环评的生态评价部分,浏览水电环评的整体部分,写一写,也许对水电项目做好环评有真的益处。
只是呼吁一下,然后环保部门走个程序,更有甚者再补票上车,文章的意义也就不够大了。

wxai

Another article from Mr. Jiang. I appreciated very much the appeal in this article. According to the Environment Evaluation Law, the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) should be applied to any construction project. The purpose of EIA is to estimate and evaluate the possible impact of this construction on the environment, and to use this evaluation as the feasibility checkpoint. The environment issue is actually an economic and social development issue. What we should investigate thoroughly is why they don’t conduct the EIA. This is what the scholars should focus on. From my point of view, if the EIA and its relative feedback is only a procedure to abandon some projects, then the project constructor may take the risk to start the construction without approval; but if the EIA is a part of overall project evaluation and required by the law, how can they skip this part?

The limitations of current EIA include: first, it is used as one of the political tools to abandon projects; second, those who manage the evaluation have made this work and its technology unnecessarily complicated. Regarding the latter limitation, Mr. Jiang, please read any EIA report and you will find what the relevant authorities should focus on. Third, the EIA report will be either weak or unclear. They need to be subjective, concise, and qualitative as well as quantitative. And this weak or unclear report makes the approval even more difficult, which leads to a vicious circle. My suggestion, if Mr. Jiang can read carefully the environment part of basic Dam EIA, and skim through the rest of the EIA, maybe he can write something to improve current situation of Dam EIA. An appeal may push the Environment Protection Authorities to make EIA a simple procedure or even allow construction before approval, but just an appeal may not really work.

The comment was translated by Fangfang CHEN

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

拜托

同志们啊,能不能实际一点。这些事情水电环评怎么可能挡得住。修水电站难道只是为了经济原因吗?中央决策者难道不知道这里巨大的生态环境的价值么?那他们为什么“不阻止”建站呢?这几条河都是国际大河,上游建站与否能控制下游的安危,而不论中国还是其他国家,所有的行为都必须服从政治。估计水电站的领导讲话都应该是“我们要克服一切困难,吃苦耐劳,不怕牺牲!”,小小的塌方泥石流他们当然不放在眼里。(而美国的统治者会疯狂地宣传三江源不能开发。)想解决西部山区水电的问题,还得从政治角度出发,比如联合国或美国从中调停,让中国和中南半岛上的国家签定水资源分配协议。否则一切免谈

Please be more realistic

Comrades, ah! Can we be more realistic? How can Hydropower Environmental Impact Assessments stop these occurrences. Is it only for economic reasons that we repair hydropower stations? Don't central decision-makers know the immense value of the ecological environment in these place? So why don't they stop building hydropower stations? These are international rivers, and hydropower station construction upstream will greatly influence the lower reaches. No matter whether in China or in other countries, all actions must adhere to political demands.
It is thought that hydropower station leaders should be saying, "We must overcome all difficulties, bear hardships and work hard, and not fear sacrifice!" So of course, they think nothing of landslides and falling debris.(However, the US leaders will vigorously maintain that the Sanjiangyuan river area should not be developed). If we want to solve the hydropower problem of the western mountain area we should look at it from a political point of view, such as how mediation from the UN or US can allow China and Indochina Peninsula countries to sign water-sharing agreements. Otherwise, there is nothing worth discussing!

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

中国人眼中的中国地理

绝大部分中国人,尤其是中国有知识有文化的(主要是汉族)人是生活黑河腾冲线以东南,他们眼中是没有怒江澜沧江这些美丽河流的(当然也很少有黑龙江),更提不上热爱珍惜她们。他们眼中的西北是沙漠与荒原,不适宜生存的地方,和当年他们看待北大荒一模一样。

China's geography in the eyes of the Chinese

Most Chinese people, especially intellectuals (mainly Han people), live to the southeast of the Hei River-Tengchong line. They turn a blind eye to beautiful rivers, eg. the Nujiang and the Lantsang,(and of course, the Heilongjiang), let alone love and cherish them. In their eyes, the west of China is desert and wilderness. They look upon it as the Great Northern Wilderness, which is not fit to live in.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

wxai:话题在转移

开发水电的方式到底如何环境影响评价是本文的主体。也就是在开发中,如何协调环境与经济的关系,我支持的是有限开发的观点,但在开发中仍要做好生态环境的保护。如何搞好水电产业的生态环境保护,也即环评阶段该怎么办,是非常技术的问题,不用夸大,就是提出问题和解决问题的方法,共大家讨论,激荡出更好的策略加以实施。妄谈国际问题,水源分配等等,我们没资格,也没技术,当然更不懂政治。

wxai:the topic is changing

The subject of this article is how to consider the issue of increasing hydropower development as well as the assessment of its environmental impact. As global development proceeds, it poses the question of how to coordinate the relationship between environment and economy. I agree with the limited development position and believe that development should aim at effective environmental protection. As such, how to deal with environmental impact assessment is a technical issue that should not be exaggerated. Together experts should consider solutions toward to the effective implementation of hydropower. We lack the qualifications, technical skills and political understanding to speak of such international issues and water allocation.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

写文章要以事实为依据

不管发表什么样的评论,都应以事实为依据,如果不是专业人士,不可道听途说就妄加评论。
1、水电站的前期工作很多,包括进场道路、工程勘察都属于前期工作,这些工作一样有很多作业面,疑似开工,但没有真正开工;
2、本人就在上述某水电站工作,我们电站的环评早于2007年已通过国家环保局评审,谁敢不管不顾?

Writing must be based on facts

No matter what kinds of comments one posts, the comments should be based on fact. If you are not a professional in this industry, you should not make presumptuous comments based on rumours. First of all, there is a lot of work that needs to be done before a power-station can be built. Such work may include clearing the way for construction and conducting geo-technical investigations. These jobs are carried out on different sites, which may lead people to think that the project has started, where in actual fact it hasn't. Secondly, I myself work in the above-mentioned power-station. Our environmental evaluation has been conducted and approved by the National Environmental Appraisal Committee in 2007. Who would dare to ignore these matters?