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绿色殡葬--虽死犹生

中国正在倡导环境友好的葬礼,但大多数人还是喜欢传统丧葬。霍伟亚指出,文化变革不能依靠强制手段,公众的环境意识有待提高。

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最近几年,一种新的安葬方式——“生态葬”——正受到中国政府和媒体的倡导,中国很多地方已相继建立适合“生态葬”的陵园。

所谓生态葬,是指“树葬”、“花葬”、“草坪葬”、“水葬”等不同于中国传统的安葬方式。“树葬”、“花葬”、“草坪葬”鼓励将骨灰撒入土壤中,在其上种植树木花草,而“水葬”是指将火葬后的骨灰撒入江河或者大海。

相比建国后中国的第一次殡葬改革——通过立法改革土葬、推行火葬,有人称这是中国的第二次殡葬改革,其最大特点是不留骨灰,让其真正回归自然。

土葬是中国传统中的主流安葬方式,1956年,毛泽东朱德周恩来邓小平等151位新中国高级干部签署了一份《倡仪实行火葬》的倡议书,倡导身后实行火葬。1985年中国国务院发布《关于殡葬管理的暂行规定》,首次规定在“人口稠密、耕地较少、交通方便”的地区推行火葬,并对不遵守该规定的国家职工实行处分。“火葬”从此成为中国的主流安葬方式。

现在中国每年修墓至少占用10万亩土地,墓地、墓园等建设使用大量砖块、水泥、大理石等坚固材料,并且越建越多,土地资源得不到更新,出现死人与活人争空间的局面。

1976年,周恩来的骨灰撒在了北京市区、密云水库、海河入海口、黄河入海口的上空;1997年,邓小平的骨灰撒入大海。按照“生态葬”标准,他们均属于“生态葬”中的“水葬”。

“生态葬”有很多符合新时代要求的优点,这在城市中最能体现。中国人口老龄化速度加快以及城市用地紧张,传统安葬方式的建墓竖碑让城市安葬空间面临“枯竭”危机,再加上崇尚“厚葬”的中国传统观念,丧葬费用日益飙升,有的甚至高过房价,社会感慨“活的起,死不起”。近日中国中央电视台曝光广东省一位村级干部毁林圈地24亩,用于建设豪华墓地,也凸显了传统安葬方式不环保的一面。

而“生态葬”则不占土地或者占地极少。即使占地,地上也不再是冰冷的墓碑,而是花草树木。每年4月5日是中国传统的清明节,人们在这天会到墓地祭扫,怀念先辈。而4月万物复苏,正是踏青的好时节。所以占地极少的“树葬”、“花葬”等实际上也同时为城市营造了大片绿地,可以让人们寄托哀思的同时踏青春游。

 “生态葬” 如能普及,让先辈真正回归自然,既节约丧葬成本,也会为中国节约大量土地;同时增加中国的绿化面积,有利于世人。

尽管“生态葬”有诸多优点,但在2009年清明节前后,中国媒体关于“生态葬”的大量报道显示,选择“生态葬”的仍只是少数。

中国人有在墓地旁边种树的传统,这在广大农村地区非常普遍。人们认为,墓旁的树木载有逝者的灵魂,树的死去往往让后人无法接受,认为是不祥之兆。面对“树葬” 、“花葬”、“草坪葬”,很多人表达了类似的担心。而“水葬” 更让人不能接受,觉得“水葬”后将无处寄托对逝者的哀思。

上海殡葬文化研究所所长诸华敏认为,“老的墓葬模式影响了人们几千年,替代起来不是一朝一夕的事情。预计在相当一段时间内,生态葬只能被一部分人所接受。”

公众仍然无法摆脱传统安葬的观念,这是目前“生态葬”面临的最大阻力。中国第一次殡葬改革推行火葬后,中国农村仍有很多地区无法接受“火葬”,2008年中国土葬率仍超过50%。

如何改变公众根深蒂固的传统安葬观念,是中国绿色殡葬改革成败的关键。

目前政府并未对推行“生态葬”做专门规定。《法制日报》4月的一篇报道称,2007年公布的《殡葬管理条例(修订草案)》条例修改工作有望今年完成。但全国人大代表邸瑛琪表示,该草案并没有涉及生态葬的内容。

第一次殡葬改革中,地方政府为了早日完成目标,往往使用强制手段,但效果不明显,偷埋遗体仍然普遍,甚至滋生腐败,这在农村地区尤为显著。邸瑛琪称,应抓紧起草《殡葬法》,确立多元化的殡葬方式。

无论是当下的金融危机,还是中国早已确定的可持续发展战略,都要求经济、社会、文化的绿色转向。中国传统的安葬观念同样需要绿色转向,但利用法律行政手段改变社会传统的安葬观念是低效甚至是无效的,观念的转变不能依靠强制手段。中国的绿色殡葬改革是否能够成功,不在于有过少相关的法律和制度,它仰赖的是中国公众环境意识的进一步提高,从而自愿采取环境友好的生活方式。


作者:霍伟亚是"中外对话"北京办公室的运营主管,曾任“绿色大学生论坛”《环境文化通讯》主编。

您对此有何看法?您是否支持环保葬礼,还是您倾向于传统墓葬?您认为青年人对于新形式的葬礼是否抱有更开放的态度? 对于墓葬需求与可用土地的冲突,您认为消费者是否需要做出让步?请在论坛上告知我们您的想法。

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

教育和政府执行力

看了这篇文章,真是非常惊讶,中国08年土葬率居然超过50%!还以为火葬在国内已经是非常普遍了。这说明在农村地区观念依然是非常落后,通过适当的方法改变观念是重中之重。个人认为跟教育有很大关系,现在的学校教育包括乡村地区的信息传达,应该多传输一些环境保护方面的知识。还有,既然国家早在85年就立了相关法律,可为什么效果那么差?真是相当怀疑政府的执行力。

Education and policy implementation

Upon reading this article, I was really surprised. In 2008, China’s burial rate still exceeded 50%! I was under the impression that cremation was already quite widespread. This indicates that in rural areas views are still rather behind the times. The most important thing should be to find the most suitable way to change these views. I personally believe this has a lot to do with education. Modern scholastic education includes conveying information to rural areas; we must increase the transmission of knowledge concerning environmental protection. Furthermore, since the state established correlated laws as early as 1985, why have the results been so lacking? It is rather doubtful that the government can implement such a policy.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

寄托绿色思念

除了传统殡葬涵盖着先人对子孙的庇护意义以外,很多城市人如今看重的是敬一份孝道,立碑纪念对亲人的哀思。从这个意义出发,我们完全可以找到更好的,更绿色的途径。

在国外,经常在很多公共花园里的树下,包括供游人休息的长凳上,看到刻着“仅以此纪念我们最亲爱的XXX —— 某某某, 某年某月”的句子。我猜测后人们花钱购买了树苗及长凳,并将此捐赠给公园。

虽然不确定如何处置骨灰,我想如果能埋在树下或凳下的土地里,是件很有意义的事情。既铭记了先人,又给城市和社区带来了绿色,还能让往来的游客看到自己对亲人的思念,并促进这种寄托绿色哀思办法的发展。

Entrusting green thinking

Besides the traditional funeral and burial for ancestors, for example, especially people living in cities, would expect descendants prove filial respect by setting up a stone monument as a sign of family members' mourning. In this respect, we can find better and greener ways.
Overseas, one can find inscriptions of "Commemorating our dearest XXX - - which year which month' in public parks, including engravings on public benches. I guess that the concerned people spent money to buy the plant seeds and benches which they donated to the park.
Although I am not sure of how to dispose of the ashes, I believe that to be buried under a tree or in the land beneath a bench would be of great significance.
Bearing in mind that both the ancestors making cities and communities greener as well as allowing visitors witnessing mourning for the missing loved ones and to promote the development of the green grief approach.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

地球友好选择


绿色葬礼是令人振奋的想法。就个人而言,我想成为一个人工珊瑚礁。非常重要的一点,人们要让家人和朋友知道他们的个人葬礼偏好。至于机关捐赠,人们在意志里应该包括他们的偏好。否则,其他人要做出决定 -- 并且那些决定也许去反对死者的信仰和愿望.MEB

An Earth-friendly option

Green funerals are an uplifting idea. Personally, I would like to become part of an artificial coral reef.
One point: it's important for people to let their family and friends know their personal funeral preferences. As with organ donation, people should include their preferences in their wills. Otherwise, others will be making the decisions -- and those decisions may go against the beliefs and wishes of the deceased. -- MEB

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

环境保护与传统理念的博弈

在中国,有句话叫做“入土为安”。土葬作为一种精神文化遗存深深植根于民众心中。在短时间内从思想层面转变公众对于殡葬的态度很难。安葬方式的选择往往不是一种个人行为而是一个家族的选择。在青年一代中倡导生态葬的环保理念当然重要,但他们对于家族其他成员安葬选择的影响微乎其微,要使之显出成效恐怕要等很久。所以若要使这种环保理念在短时间内功效显著,以政府的名义、配合法律的约束,向广大农村地区做深入而持久的宣传是关键。把环保的生态安葬方式与惠农政策相结合,让民众从殡葬方式的转变中切实得到利益或许会有所成效。

Juggling environmental protection and traditional ways of life

In China, there is a saying “buried and at rest” (R.I.P). Burial is considered a type of spiritual and cultural heritage that is deeply rooted in the hearts and minds of the people. It is difficult to transform the public’s attitude towards burial in such a short period of time. Choosing how to bury the dead is often not a matter of personal conduct, but rather one that concerns one’s entire household. Of course it is important for younger generations to advocate the concept of ecological burial; however, I am afraid it will be quite a long time before they are no longer bound by the burial arrangements chosen by other family members. Therefore, it seems that in order for this type of ecological concept to make a significant impact in a short period of time, it is crucial that we, on behalf of the government and in accordance with the law, carry out the dissemination of these concepts to the vast rural areas in a way that is far-reaching and long-lasting. Integrating ecological burial practices into Huinong’s policies will perhaps be effective in allowing people to realistically benefit from the transformation of burial practices.
Translated by Afra Tucker

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

回复评论2

这种浪漫的做法当然很好,但东方与西方对于死亡的观念存在差异。在中国,生者对于死者或多或少存在着“敬畏与恐惧”。坐在这样的长椅上,恐怕会使我这个城市人心神不宁。更难想象怎样让广大的农民接受。

on comment2

This romantic practice would be sure nice, but the difference on the view of death between east and west can not be ignored. Chinese people, more or less, stand in awe and fear of the dead. I am afraid sitting on these chairs would, therefore, made the citizens feel uneasy. It is even harder to make the farmers accept.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

殡葬制度与绿色

其实,我个人觉得,中国的殡葬传统已经上千年了,已经有了很多好的传统,只不过在城市化急剧加快之中,传统消失殆尽,而现在,绿色殡葬似乎并不能解决所有问题,其实,去农村看看,不是要不要绿色殡葬的问题,而且像很多农民说的,殡葬改革的结果是让一些人“死无葬身之地”。所以,这还不单纯是公众意识的问题,而是公正,公平的问题。

The funeral system and go green

In fact, I personally believe that China's funeral tradition already has a history of thousands of years and bears a lot of good traditions. However, with urbanization dramatically speeding up, tradition suddenly disappearing, the green funeral does not seem to resolve all problems. Actually, if one can have a look at the countryside, the residents are not against the green funeral and burial but instead burial reforms results make some people feel that the green funeral is “dying without the buried body underground”. Therefore, this is not simply a question of public awareness but that of fairness.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

经济账

这里要考虑费用问题,在有些地区,农民觉得火葬所花的费用并不低于土葬,这样一来,还不如选择土葬更划算,也符合“入土为安”的传统。虽然政府明令禁止,但只要花上一点小钱,当地干部就不再过问了。而且,长期下去,这会形成“示范效应”,火葬根本无法推行下去。

In terms of economic costs

Here we need to consider costs,in some areas, peasants feel that the cost of cremation is higher than that of burial, so it seems more cost-effective choosing burial, which at the same time is in line with the "rest in peace" tradition. Even if government officially forbids burial, but as long as some money is given to local cadres, the latter would not oppose it. Moreover, on the long run, this might evolve into a "demonstration effect" , cremation will basically not be carried out.
Translated by Jennifer Yip

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

疑问

大家可以看到,当某某名人或干部去世后,常要埋在家乡的土地上,还会根据风水的讲究,修建很大、很漂亮的陵园以供纪念。当面对这些行为时,国家的法令还有效吗?

Question

Everbody can realise that when a celebrity or cadre dies, they are usually buried in their homeland, but also in accordance to feng shui, and know the construction of a very large and beautiful memorial cemetery. Are the contry's laws effective when faced with such behaviours?

Translated by Jennifer Yip

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

同意!我也选择这样的。

在将来的话,要是我死了。我也会选择绿色葬法。
一定会的。

Agreed! I would choose likewise.

Were I to die, I would definitely choose a "green" burial.
Translated by Afra Tucker

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

环保又经济

我很喜欢生态葬,既环保又经济。
从自然规律的角度说,生命是一个循环,人从自然中诞生、从自然中吸取营养长大,那么死后当然也应该回归自然。土葬也好火葬也好,都是把人的尸体或骨灰放在一个狭小的空间里,割裂了与自然的联系。我觉得生态葬就很好,既回到自然母亲的怀抱,又可以滋养一方水土。
人死了就不在这个世上了(也许去另一个世界,但总之不在这里了),又何必费钱费力费土地去修一个”人生后花园“呢?只不过是活人的寄托罢了。其实在我看来,比起关在一个冰冷的棺材或狭小的骨灰盒里,长眠在花草树木之下或者流水之中要好得多、美得多、舒服得多,何乐而不为呢?
可惜的是,大部分中国人可能都不会接受这种葬法。很多人特别是农民毕竟教育程度比较低,文化素养有限,他们受很多传统观念的束缚,难以敞开心扉去接受新的事物和新的观念。这其实不仅仅是殡葬的问题,而是一个普遍现象。要想推动国民思想进步,我们还有很长的路要走。
Monica

Environmental Protection and the Economy

I like ecological funerals both for environmental protection and the economy. Speaking from a perspective informed by the laws of nature, life is very cyclical. From nature are people born, from nature do people absorb the nourishment they need to grow, and of course, to nature do people return after they die. Earth burials are okay, and so are cremations. Both involve taking a dead body or its ashes and placing them in a narrow space, keeping them separate from nature. I just think ecological burials are better! The dead return to mother nature's embrace, providing nourishment to a patch of natural environment. When a person dies, they're no longer on this earth (perhaps they go to another world, but they certainly don't remain here), so why spend money, effort, and land on building a funerary garden? It's just that there are living people to focus on, that's all. Actually, in my opinion, compared with an ice-cold coffin or a narrow funerary casket, eternal rest below the flowers and trees, or in the flowing water, would be much better, more beautiful, and much more comfortable. What could you have against that? It's a pity that most Chinese people will probably reject this method of burial. Many people, and especially farmers, people with little education, and people who are uncultured, they accept the many restrictions of traditional thought. It's hard for them to widen their perspective and accept new things and new thoughts. In fact, this isn't only a problem when it comes to funerals and burial. It's a general issue. If we want to promote national thought and progress, we still have a long road ahead of us. Monica (Translated by Jerry Stewart)