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让野生动物走下餐桌

由于一些珍稀动物面临灭绝,华南的动物保护团体正在努力改变这一地区吃野味的传统。乔纳森•沃茨报道。

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炖乌龟能治癌症,鳄鱼肉缓解哮喘,穿山甲调节月经,毒对中风有效。

这些都是在广东省流传已久的偏方。这里的动物市场生意兴隆,到处都是蛇、蝎子、蝾螈,还有各种各样的鸟类和龟类,其中一些是濒危动物。它们最终的归宿除了餐馆、药房就是变成笼里的宠物。

食用珍稀野生动物在华南很常见,但现在越来越多的学生开始努力做一些让当地人觉得更奇怪的事情:拯救这些动物。

方兴未艾的NGO保护运动在深入那些政府行动效果相对有限的领域,采取的方式是监控市场和餐馆,举报贩卖濒危动物的行为以及努力改变消费者的饮食文化。亚洲龟类复兴计划是几个历史最短的小型团体之一,今年初才成立,目的是把乌龟们从汤煲里拯救出来。

创立者们说,在养育他们的文化和从网络和学校学来的全球动物保护观念之间存在巨大的对立,他们正在努力调和。

但周围的人都认为这纯粹是白费力气。“他们对这个活动不以为然,在他们看来,乌龟这种小动物就是给人吃的,救它们干嘛?”当地的一位学生罗新梅(音)说,“几乎没有一个广州人意识到这里其实是野生动物非法买卖的中心。”

学生们的行动可以说是和传统以及经济增长唱反调。广东是华南最富裕也最有影响力的省份,然而这里对珍稀动植物的嗜好就连中国其他地方的人们也觉得过头了。

这种嗜好的主因在于中国传统医药,很多珍稀动物都被当做药材。人们认为动植物越天然,效果就越好。关于广东人的爱吃野味,中国有一种很生动的说法:四条腿的不吃板凳,天上飞的不吃飞机,水里游的不吃轮船。

2003年,由于喧闹一时的SARS被归因于果子狸和其他野生动物传播的病原体,野味热迅速冷却。然而此后随着收入的增加,越来越多的消费者也能够饱餐曾经被当做大款禁脔的那些山珍海味,野味热开始回潮。野生物贸易研究委员会(Traffic)去年进行的一项调查表明,几乎一半的广州居民在之前十二个月中吃过野生动物。

野味热的影响是毁灭性的。国际社会对动物保护的关注往往都集中在苏门答腊虎和大熊猫之类的大型动物身上,然而许多爬行动物在不知不觉中已经被推向灭绝的边缘,包括三线箱龟罗地岛蛇颈龟马来西亚巨龟。龟类是受威胁最大的物种之一,因为它们繁殖速度很慢,而且龟肉被当成延年益寿的灵药。

亚洲龟类复兴计划采取各种方式来提高对野生动物的保护意识。他们悄悄拍下了屠宰乌龟的场面,并将其发到互联网上。但是,主要工作是监控。团体成员温振宇(音)最近走访了广州的清平市场和花地湾市场,确认了许多受到国际公约保护的龟类品种,包括大头龟猪鼻龟、三线箱龟和缅甸陆龟

尽管中国并不是唯一的野生动物消费国,但却是最大的。这个影响已经波及到整个地区。今年2月,越南当局查获有史以来最大一宗非法猎取的野生动物制品,包括虎骨、熊掌和熊胆,足足有两吨重。同样在2月,老挝也报告说对老虎的偷猎一直在进行。这些野生动物制品的最大市场就是中国,在这里一只老虎的虎骨和虎鞭可以卖到7万美元。

有关部门偶尔会对餐馆和商户进行突击检查。四月份,广州野生动物保护部门查获一批走私的红腹锦鸡日本獾豹猫和其它动物。

《卫报》记者在广州附近的从化温泉发现有两家餐馆公然违法供应穿山甲和其它保护动物。一家餐馆的穿山甲肉每公斤要价1千元(约合150美元)。“你得先付钱,我们就帮你弄一只来,”店员说,“可以做火锅,也可以红烧。”旁边另一家餐馆则非法出售眼镜蛇。“一百元一斤,我们的蛇是野生的,”一位服务生说。

保护主义者们认为只靠警察解决不了问题。“我们必须树立起消费者的意识,这样人们就会从不可持续的消费逐渐找到管理的感觉。”Traffic亚太协调员詹姆斯·康普顿说。

另一个团体——“绿之眼”最近获得一场重要的胜利。广州的一家餐馆把一条护士鲨放在一个狭小的水槽里,让它几乎无法动弹,绿之眼的成员们手拿写有“没有买卖就没有杀害”中英文双语的旗子,在餐馆门外进行抗议。他们的行动被当地媒体广泛报道,最终争取到鲨鱼被放归自然

绿色之眼的成员郑元英(音)说值得关注的并不是餐馆老板,而是消费者。“我们避免发生冲突,只是努力进行建议,但仍然有一些人认为我们对动物的关注过了头。”

对许多物种来说,保护行动为时已晚。国际野生生物保护学会的报告指出野生淡水龟、蛇类和蛙类的生物多样性发生锐减,尽管包括鳄鱼在内的许多物种成功进行着捕获饲育。

在清平市场,一位贩蛇老手说现在的种类已经没有过去多了,许多动物已经灭绝,当局的检查也更加严格。但他也承认还在偷偷出售一些保护动物。“就算人们知道某种动物是濒危的,但如果别的药物没用的话,他们照样还会吃。”

南沙
区一个臭名昭著的市场已经被关闭,但保护者们担心野生动物交易只不过是转到地下而已。

从广州市中心开车一小时,就到了太平。凌晨四点,天还没亮,《卫报》记者发现野生动物贩子们已经避开当局和保护者们的耳目偷偷做着买卖。三长溜棚子构成了一个拥挤肮脏的动物园,到处都是铁丝笼子:又长又高的装的是苍鹭,又扁又平的装的是果子狸鸵鸟的笼子太小了,只能动头却动不了身子。类似的市场在华南随处可见。

保护者们说关键是要转变态度。“我们努力告诉人们:乌龟不只是宠物,也不光是食物,它们也是人类的朋友。”温振宇说。


来源:www.guardian.co.uk

卫报新闻传媒有限公司2009年版权所有

首页图片由 VLKR

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

如果

如果每一个食用野生动物的人,都能与这些动物对视,他们或许会了解死亡的含义。有人这样说道“不仅是食物,更是活物,是与我们一样五官俱全会交流的活物。”

If

If everyone who treats wild animals as a source of food are able to look at these animals face-to-face, then perhaps they will understand the significance of their death. Some people put it this way. "These animals are not just food, they are living things. Just like us, they are living things with a complete set of five senses and the ability to communicate." (Translated by Jerry Stewart)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

抵制野生动物交易

中国有个词叫“山珍海味”说的就是野生动物,吃野生动物不仅为了口感、为了好奇还为了炫耀,很多人抓住了这个“商机”,大肆捉捕野生动物,使这变成了最有利可图的买卖。这种模式加速了野生动物的灭绝。

Opposing wild animals trade

In China some people refer to wild animals as “exotic delicacies”. Those who enjoy eating them do so not just because they enjoy the taste or they want to satisfy their curiosity. Eating wild animals is also a way to show off. Because of this trend's growing popularity, many have already started to see it as a profitable business opportunity. This has led to more and more wild animals being killed for consumption purposes. Ultimately, this will speep up many wild animals extinction process.(Translated by Vanessa Liberson)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

文化传统 对 全球保护主义观念

动物保护组织在广东与有关机构一起开展的限制野生动物的消费行动非常好。由于野生动物可以作为中药(TCM,Traditional Chinese Medicine),食用野生动物不仅仅是一种潮流。限制对野生动物的消费也不仅仅是转变消费文化和态度。它涉及到改变几百年来形成的文化传统。我们必须找到一种办法来限制对野生动物的消费,而又不让消费者认为这是对他们获取基本药用材料的限制。为了实现这个目标,还有很多的宣传工作要做。消费者需要在文化传统与全球保护主义观念之间达成一种妥协。

cultural practices vs. global conservation concerns

Conservation groups are doing a great job working alongside authorities to help limit wildlife consumption in Guangdong. Because of its connections to TCM , eating wild animals is not simply a trend. Limiting wildlife consumption is not just about changing consumer culture and attitudes. It is also about changing a deeply rooted cultural practice that has been around for hundreds of years. We must find a way to limit wildlife consumption that is not perceived by consumers as trying to prevent them from accessing essential curative ingredients. In order to achieve this, a great deal of campaigning is needed. Consumers must learn how to compromise tradition with global conservation concerns.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

自然保护区

今天是世界环境日,CCTV的新闻频道《共同关注》关注了黑龙江扎龙自然保护区内的野生动物命运,报道中,虽然丹顶鹤保护较好,但其它鸟类的命运就悲惨了,毒药、夹子、网遍布在保护区内,甚至野味餐馆都开进了保护区,真是让人担忧。

Nature reserves

Today is World Environment Day. “Common Concern”, a news program on CCTV, talked about the wildlife in nature reserve in Zhalong, Heilongjiang province. This report showed that although the Japanese Crane is under better protection, other birds are still living in poor conditions. Poisons, traps, nets and even restaurants selling wildlife dishes are all inside the nature reserve. Such a situation causes distress.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

一个问题

似乎食用野生动物在华南一代,尤其是广州非常盛行,这是为什么呢?这是地理原因所致,还是其他什么缘由?

One question

It seems that eating wild animals is very popular among southwestern areas, especially in Guangzhou. Why? Is there a geographic reason, or other factors?

This comment is translated by Emily Li Yajing.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

匪夷所思的文化

中国人普遍喜爱吃野味,这倒是事实。我在家乡(黑龙江)的时候,曾经有人给我父母送过野鸡、狍子和野猪肉,真是罪过。可能人们就是图个新鲜,也没意识到这些动物的生存已经面临困境。不过大部分人也就是偶尔尝尝鲜,至于广东人这么热衷于吃野生动物,同为中国人的我实在是无法理解。

An Unimaginable Culture

It is true that most Chinese people like to eat wild animals. When I was in my hometown (Heilongjiang), people used to give my parents pheasants, Siberian roe deer and boars as presents. What a sin! Perhaps people like to experience new things but without considering the difficult living conditions of these animals. I think most people try wildlife dishes only occasionally. However, as a Chinese person, I still cannot understand why the Cantonese are fond of eating wild animals. -Translated by Peter Bi-

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

吃野味可能与中国古文化及古中医有关

很多人都说华南地区,特别是广东人爱吃野味(野生动物)。但据我在日常生活里的观察,发现爱吃野味的人的确不少,但并不是广东人的独有嗜好。

吃野味能产生不衰,其中有一个很重要因素:古代传说和古中医流传至今,野生动物的独特功用已被一代又一代的中国人接受和牢记于心。

爱好人群一:患有某些疾病,特别是重大疾病的病人。根据中医偏方,野生草药和野生动物具有独特的疗效可以医治疾病。
爱好人群二:有钱人。因为有钱,任何东西都能轻易买到,更何况是食物。也因为有钱,寻常的食材吃多了,没新意,更无法体现有钱人自身的身价。说道有钱人,广东早已不是国内最富裕的省份了。但是最为最先富起来的省份,它作为消费新奇玩意之地的地位却依然对当前的市场起到一定的影响作用。无论是北方的还是沿海的,又或者是海外的有钱人都会来广东一尝新奇玩意。所以中高档酒店扎堆,各种消费场所遍布也是这个原因。不信,去东莞的几个城镇走一圈就明白了,为什么那么多讲各地方言的款爷会在那里出没,图的是啥?
爱好人群三:有特殊原因的人群。因为“生活”需要,他们需要进补来维持强健的体魄。这里就不多赘述了。
爱好人群四:他们不是在广东或国内消费,而是会“出口”至其他地方,至于谁消费,估计广东人不占大多数了吧。

作者:AZ

The possible relationship between eating wildlife and Chinese traditional culture and medicine

It is said that people in South China, that Cantonese people in particular, like eating rare wildlife. However, according to my observation, there are indeed many people who like eating rare wildlife -- it is not only the Cantonese who have this kind of hobby. An important factor has led to the long tradition of eating wild animals – due to ancient tales and Chinese traditional medicine, the unique functions of eating wild animals has been widely recognized by Chinese people. One group of wild animal-eating enthusiasts are those who have illnesses, especially serious ones. According to Chinese medical prescriptions, wild plants and animals are unique in curing patients. Another group of wild animal-eating fans are rich people. They are so rich that they can buy anything easily, particularly food. Also, because they are rich, ordinary food no longer appeals to them, as eating it does not allow them to show off their wealth. Speaking of rich people, Guangdong is no longer the richest province in the mainland. However, as it is the first one to get rich, it is the pool of new goods, which still affects the trend in the market. When rich people, whether from the north, the coastal or overseas, go to Guangdong, they will try out new things. This is also why there are so many high and middle-class hotels and various kinds of places of entertainment there. If you don’t believe this, you can just walk around the towns in Dongguan. Why are there so many rich people with different accents? What are they looking for? This leads to yet another group of wild animal-eating fans – people with particular needs. Their "lifestyle" requires them to consume specific nutrients to keep strong so that they can continue to live in ways which I won’t dwell on here. The last group of wild animal-eating fans are those beyond Guangdong or even the mainland. Wild animals are exported to other places to be consumed by people among whom Cantonese won't account for the majority. Author : AC (Translated by Garvey Yan)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

及时追溯

我认为对整个争论的批判的角度要以历史为基础;中国古代处方、食谱、药理学典经和食疗书都包括稀有动物和植物,称赞这些可以滋阴补阳,强健某一器官,或者有壮阳作用。但是过去常常只有达官显贵才能享受这些滋补品(熊掌,虎鞭,鹿茸,鱼翅,稀有的鳖和犰狳等等),但是随着现代中国社会的开放,这些种类已经变得普及。现在需要大量政策(结合精良的教育手段和下面这种策划完善的运动)来改变这些菜单。
为了更直观的说明,在1981年(如果细想一下并不算久远),我在广州的一个市场拍摄了被晒干的猴子,剥了皮的鹿等的照片。可到http://hahn.zenfolio.com/p345371940察看。
周四/康奈尔
本评论由张靓翻译

Going back in time...

I think the critical angle to this whole debate is anchored in history; ancient Chinese recipes, cookbooks, the pharmacological canon and dietary texts have always been inclusive of rare animals and plants, praising them as nourishing the Yang or the Yin, strengthening a particular organ in one's body, or promising sexual health. It used be be that only a certain elite had access to these auxiliary elements of nutrition (bear paws, tiger penis, deer antlers, shark fins, rare turtles and armadillos, etc...), but with the flattening of modern society in China, these same ingredients have reached the masses. It will take a massive policy effort (in conjunction with really well-conceived educational tools and an engineered movement from below) to alter the menu again.
For the purpose of illustration, in 1981 (which is not too long ago if you think about it), I took photographs of dried monkeys, skinned deer, etc. in a market in Guangzhou. They can be found at http://hahn.zenfolio.com/p345371940

TH/Cornell

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

肉食的人类不会停止对野生动物的残害

是人类肉食的思想根源导致了难以抗拒食用野生动物的贪欲。其实受到中国健康机构认可与推崇坎贝尔教授的权威书籍《中国健康报告》明确指出,肉类是对人类健康有害的食物,从营养健康角度来讲素食是让人真正健康的食物。希望大家多推广这方面资料,更多人素食也就会让更多人健康,更多人爱心善良,那么我们可爱的野生动物就会和人类和谐共处,不用担心被杀害了。
另外,畜牧业造成了18%的温室效应气体,人类直接从植物获取营养,对减缓气候变迁会做出巨大的改变。
---吉林省白城市洮北区环保局 李女士诚挚发表

Carnivorous human beings won't stop harming the wild animals

It is the idea of "eating meat" of human beings that leads to the lust for eating wild animals. According to the authoritative book "China Health Report" written by Prof. Cambell, which is accredited and recommended by Chinese health units, meat is unhealthy to human beings while vegetarian diet is truly healthy from a nutrition perspective. I hope we will spread this information. With more vegetarians, people will lead more healthier lives and embrace more lovely souls. The dear wild animals can then live harmoniously with us, without their lives being threatened. Besides, rearing of animals causes 18% of the total GHGs. If we obtain nutritions directly from plants, it will be a great change in terms of alleviating climate change. (By Mrs. Li, Environmental Protection Bureau, Taobei District, Baicheng City, Jilin Province)

-Translated by Guo Chen.