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抢占非洲良田

投资者们一直在购买世界上最贫穷大陆的肥沃土地。一项新的研究结论认为,这类交易的背后动机大多数是因为粮食安全,而不是商业利益。哈维尔•布拉斯报道。

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就在不久前,外界对非洲农田似乎还没有什么兴趣。但是,很多国家去年发生了粮食危机和水短缺,外界的胃口随之改变。结果,非洲的良田如今成了国际投资者追逐的目标,买卖的土地面积达数十万公顷。

对于这一动向,有人斥之为“抢占农田”,而有人则视之为巨大的发展机遇。关于该动向的首份重量级报告得出结论认为,这类交易的背后动机大多数是因为粮食安全,而不是商业利益。

该报告称:“政府关注粮食供应的稳定性,促使海外屯田,作为从国际市场购买粮食的替代选择。2007年和2008年粮食价格飙升,动摇了世界将继续维持低粮价的假设。”

粮食进口国对出口国的贸易限制感到不安,它们意识到,对农业市场的依赖使其不仅受涨价的影响,更重要的是,会因为供应中断而受损。

该报告名为《抢地还是发展机遇?农业投资和非洲国际土地交易》,由联合国和总部设在设在伦敦的智囊机构国际环境与发展研究所(IIED)联合完成,是研究这一新动向的开山之作。

报告称:“这无疑是一个热点问题,因为土地对身份、生计和粮食安全至关重要。”

投资国以自给自足的名义,将粮食调运回国,以养活本国的人口,大大改变了这种投资的性质。在1950年代和1960年代,跨国公司种植粮食,面向全球市场,目的是为了赚钱。

致力于农村扶贫的联合国机构国际农业发展基金(IFAD)总裁万泽表示,世界正在出现一个新的动向。他说:“粮食安全问题回到了政治议程上,成为农业投资的推动力。”

报告作者之一、IIED高级研究员洛伦佐·科图拉补充说:“农田投资的动向已然形成,并呈愈演愈烈之势。”

从外部获得粮食安全保障和从内部追求自给自足的发展趋势,成为农业公司和贸易官员的热议话题。

邦吉北美是世界上最大的农业贸易公司之一,该公司首席执行官卡尔·豪斯曼最近在密苏里州圣路易斯举办的世界农业论坛的发言,广泛代表了其他公司高管和政府官员的观点。

他表示:“许多政府正重新考虑解决粮食安全的办法,并表示我们需要提高国内产量,我们需要立足国内。我想指出的是,更好的办法恰恰相反。没有农业商品和粮食产品的自由贸易,任何特定国家在任何特定年份的状况都要面临危险。”

世界贸易组织总干事帕斯卡尔·拉米警告称,解决粮食安全的途径是更多的贸易,而不是更少。他最近在国际粮食与农业贸易政策委员会(IPC)于奥地利萨尔茨堡举行的会议上发言称:“多年来,是国际贸易拉低了粮食价格。”

然而,此类关切不可能阻止目前的趋势。由于农业商品价格再次上涨,以及一年前实施的一些出口限制措施依然未能解除,大多数专家认为,对非洲及其他地方的影响可能是持久的。

报告警告称:“今天作出的决定,将在未来几十年里对很多人的生计和粮食安全产生重大的影响。”


来源:www.ft.com

金融时报有限公司2009年版权所有

首页图片由stillingen

 

 

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匿名 | Anonymous

中国在非洲

中国简报(China Briefing)也刚提及了一些中国在非洲事务中的参与问题,似乎这一话题开始热门起来了:http://www.china-briefing.com/news/2009/06/08/china%e2%80%99s-africa-strategy-blossoms-as-relationship-develops.html#more-3457

(由renate翻译)

China in Africa

China Briefing also just ran a piece on China involvement in Africa, seems it's becoming a hot topic: http://www.china-briefing.com/news/2009/06/08/china%e2%80%99s-africa-strategy-blossoms-as-relationship-develops.html#more-3457

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

中国不可能依靠海外屯田

关于海外屯田的说法,自从金融时报去年9月的报道以来(见中国要去海外“屯田” ,英国《金融时报》吉密欧(Jamil Anderlini)北京报道 2008-05-09 ),就是个敏感话题。但事实上这是个典型的借中国炒作的话题。中国离海外“屯田” 还差得很远,相反一些石油国家和日韩等土地稀少的国家早就已经开始着手了。如日本在海外的的农田面积是其国内面积的三倍,韩国在马达加斯加的租田种粮的协议直接导致了马国前政府下台。中国在非洲租种土地的大部分都是自发的商人和农民,在海外租地经营农场,但基本都是在当地市场销售。政府组织的以运粮回中国为目的海外屯田行为既没有价格优势,同时有很高的政治风险。何况以中国的人口规模和粮食需求,海外屯田的产出只能是杯水车薪。金融时报今年四月的一篇报道(中国:将依靠自有土地保障粮食安全,英国《金融时报》哈维尔•布拉斯(Javier Blas)意大利希森迪瓦马瑞报道 2009-04-21)中援引中国农业部副部长牛盾的话,也很明确的阐述了中国在这个问题上的立场。中国不可能依靠在其他国家投资来保障本国的粮食安全,中国政府倾向于依靠自有土地保证粮食自给自足,从而使中国与沙特和韩国等投资于海外土地的国家形成差异。 实际上,去年11月国家发改委副主任张晓强在发布我国首部国家粮食安全中长期规划纲要的发布会上就明确的说过,“绝对不会大规模地购买或长期租用其他国家的土地,以此来保障中国的粮食安全”。大概那时金融时报驻北京的记者没有觉得很重要吧?

China can't rely on global farmland

The topic of purchasing farmlands abroad has become sensitive since a report published in the Financial Times last September (see "China sets its sights on global farmland" by Jamil Anderlini in Beijing, Friday, 09 May, 2008). Actually this is a typical topic for questioning China. In terms of purchasing farmlands abroad, compared to oil countries like Japan and South Korea which lack land and have already set to work, China still has so much to do. For instance, the scale of Japan's overseas farmlands triples its own land; the agreement for renting farmland to plant crops in Madagascar by South Korea led directly to the collapse of former government of Madagascar. Mostly Chinese people who rent lands in Africa are spontaneous businessmen and farmers. They rent land abroad as farmland and sell most of the products on the local markets. The action of using overseas farmland with the aim of supplying domestic food triggered by government neither has price advantages or a low political risk. What is more, taking China's population scale and the demand for food into account, what overseas land use offers is not enough. In fact, in last November, Zhang Xiaoqiang, deputy director of National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) in the conference of China's first National Food Security Program for Medium and Long-Term development has clarified that, "we will certainly not to largely buy or rent other countries’ land for long term to ensure China's food security." Probably at that moment the reporter of Financial Time in Beijing did not take it seriously.

This comment is translated by Emily Li Yajing.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

以出口为主的非洲农业面临改变

不久以前,在东非的欧洲外派人员在欧洲受到强烈谴责,他们被指责将经济作物拿来出口而不是用以帮助解决贫困人民的温饱问题,并且抢占当地最有价值的农业用地。
而现在,那些来自欧洲以外的国家的外企,移民,以及外派人员这么做,貌似大家都可以接受了。
产业的发展已从注重良好的管理以及公平转化为追求经济增长——特别是通过贸易达到经济增长——而不考虑社会和环境影响。
国际共同体和(因为一些明显的原因)腐败的国家政客并不批判掠夺土地的行为。贫困,厌战的非洲人孤立无援。

(本评论经过中外对话修改)

The changing face of export-oriented agriculture in Africa

Not long ago European expatriates in East Africa were roubstly criticised in Europe for (a) farming cash crops for export instead of helping feed poor local people and (b) occupying the most valuable agricultural land locally.

It seems now to be acceptable for foreign corporations or immigrants and expatriates from countries outside Europe to do so.

The development industry has switched from a focus on good governance and equity to pursuit of economic growth - especially by increasing trade - regardless of social and environmental impact.

The international community and (for obvious reasons) corrupt national politicians do not seem critical of the land grab. Impoverished, war-weary Africans locally are on their own.

(Moderated by Chinadialogue)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

事实为证

大举购买非洲良田的都是哪些国家,有没有中国?看来很多人怀疑中国对非洲的态度。空口说白话是没有说服力的,最好的方法是以事实为证。不知道文中提到的报告中有没有说明购田者都是哪些国家,若是没有,有心者大可以去非洲进行实地调查,看看事实到底是怎样的。

The need of facts to provide evidence

Which countries purchase large scale fertile land in Africa? Is China one of them? Many people seem to doubt China's attitude to Africa. The idle talk is not persuasive, the best method is facts providing evidence. I don't know if the report mentioned in the article tells of the countries purchasing farmland, if not, those interested to know can go to Africa conducting research studies to discover facts.
Translated by Jennifer Yip

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

中国的农业投资更细致

联合国粮食及农业组织(粮农组织)和国际农业发展基金(农发基金)的报告实际上是对中国的作用要比一般的媒体报道显示得更为细致。 它注意到对于中国在非洲的农业投资的程度缺乏可靠的报告,只有很少任何投资超过5万公顷。有趣的是,它认为农业的投资促使更多的推动,扩大外国直接投资方面而不是粮食安全。2009年5月出版的非洲亚洲机密拥有我看到的最全面的非洲农业投资清单。不过,我最近花了时间与非洲发展的若干高级专家,他们给我介绍在非常低端的市场贫穷的非洲人对中国商业人的愤怒与竞争-从蔬菜市场到卖淫。也许非洲和其他政府可以更仔细提供给外国人计划设立店铺签证,并选择他们希望的特定技能和投资,就像中国曾经做得方法。AW
译Jennifer Yip

China's agricultural investments more nuanced

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) report is actually far more nuanced on China's role than most of the media coverage suggests.

http://www.ifad.org/pub/land/land_grab.pdf

It notes the paucity of reliable reports on the extent of Chinese investment in African agriculture, with few, if any investments for more than 50,000 hectares. Interestingly, it sees investment in agriculture as driven more by a push to expand FDI than for food security concerns.

The May 2009 edition of Africa-Asia Confidential has the most comprehensive list of Chinese investments in African agriculture that I've seen.

However, I recently spent time with several senior African development experts, who described to me the growing level of frustration among poor Africans at competition from Chinese traders at the very lowest end of the market -- from vegetables to prostitution.

Perhaps African and other governments could look very carefully at the kind of visas it is willing to offer to foreigners planning to set up shop there and be selective about the kind of skills and investment they want, just like China did. AW