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“行进中的低碳中国”

中国的低碳之路发展的怎样,前景又如何?中外对话就此采访了气候组织大中国区总监吴昌华。

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吴昌华是气候组织大中国区总监,负责领导整个地区的运营及战略发展工作。她曾任职安社(ENSR)国际集团中国区业务的执行总监,与多家跨国公司合作,帮助他们在中国发展业务并适应中国的法律法规。

吴昌华还在华盛顿的世界资源研究所领导一个中国研究项目。她为多家跨国机构提供咨询,包括世界银行,联合国环境规划署和联合国开发计划署等。她同时是世界报业协会、天普大学法学院中美环境法规与政策圆桌会议的一员。吴昌华拥有中国社科院颁发的法律学位及马里兰大学的环境政策学学位。

中外对话:气候组织去年和今年发布了两次《中国清洁革命》的报告,描述了中国低碳经济发展的巨大成就和光明前景。也有很多人认为中国低碳经济发展目前有很多问题,未来也困难重重。您如何看待这两种悲观和乐观的观点?


吴昌华:我还是觉得前景是好的。低碳发展是一个大的国际趋势,中国的决策道路没有选错。即使在这一年当中,全世界范围内发生了经济危机,中国低碳发展的决策方向还是没有变。你不得不承认中国决策者的明智。

最近在中国新能源发展中,出现了重复投资等泡沫问题,社会各界的争议很多。但我们要透过这些问题向下看,到底是为什么?比如太阳能电池技术,中美都觉得很重要,但美国的政府投资,最终就几家电池公司拿到了这些钱,因为很清楚真正引领技术的公司就那么几个。但在中国,这些投资的发放就是天女散花。因为中国本身的地方保护主义,各地都来争这个投资,最后就平衡,就每个地方都撒点钱,投资方向也都雷同而且趋向低端技术。无序的投资造成巨大的浪费,也让投资者觉得非常困惑。这个需要政府去理顺关系,而不是去急刹车。

事实上,我们团队在调研中也发现中国企业这个问题那个问题,困难真是太多了。但我们的结论是,国际国内整体的发展方向没有变,现实问题越多越大,它蕴含的发展机遇也越多越大。这些问题亟待解决,也就为中国企业提供了巨大的市场空间。

另一方面,这些问题的出现也为决策者和其它相关方做了提醒:即使在大的方向上站在世界前沿,如果不解决好国内存在的很多现实问题,中国的低碳发展步伐也是走不快的,很难引领世界。这个提醒是好事,但也要注意不能警觉过度。

因为中国特定的国情,各方面的基础没那么好,这些问题的出现也是我们不得不经历的摸索过程。有时候必须撞一下墙才能醒过来,在慢慢撞墙的过程中大家也就越来越明白。

中外对话:在气候组织今年开展的低碳城市项目过程中,地方政府、企业各层面对低碳经济发展的态度如何?

吴昌华:我们的低碳城市是选择在中国六个城市(包括香港)做一些示范项目,解决当地一些实际的问题。贵阳的节能灯项目(LED)正在进行中,八月份布莱尔和李连杰去看的时候已经很成规模。还有几个城市的电动汽车项目(EV)和绿色建筑项目正在筹备中。

从地方政府到企业,对建设低碳城市的积极态度让我们觉得非常振奋。他们节能减排的意识都有了,也推出了很多强有力的举措。但有时他们这个低碳环保的发展意识有点过激。有些城市觉得新能源这个发展方向非常好,不管自己是否有研发能力,是否有核心技术,就很盲目地给予财政支持。一个节能灯公司莫名其妙地被当地政府请去做八条街的节能灯工程,甚至不需要采集数据,也不审核质量,装起来就放在那里没人管了。再例如万通地产(Beijing Vantone Real Estate Co., Ltd.)的冯仑,脑子非常“绿”,把国外的很多绿色建筑技术原版照搬都用在自己的产品上,弄得非常复杂,住户根本不知道怎么用。

不管怎样,他们意识到低碳发展的重要性就是一个进步,很快他们就会吸取教训去分析市场,完善细节。最近上海在做新能源十二五发展规划时,已经意识到要集中力量发展自己有优势的领域,非常强调自主创新。

中外对话:中国各种类型的企业对低碳经济发展的意识和行动有哪些不同?

吴昌华:没有绝对的类型划分,但大体有以下几种情况。

在国有企业中,规模比较大的基本都已经走向国际,对碳排放问题的认识比较靠前。虽然中国现在还没有承诺绝对减排量,但这些企业内部已经在做相应的各种准备,只是在国内没有声张。

这几年民营企业中也开始涌现越来越多有低碳意识的企业家。他们对国际国内整体的政策环境未必了解得很透彻,但已经在考虑自己的低碳发展战略。其中有些就是做低碳生意的企业,如远大空调,无锡尚德和金风科技,他们会很积极的去推动国家的低碳发展策略,去跟国家要政策支持。一些房地产企业如万科(China Vanke Co., Ltd.)和万通,也都在推动绿色建筑,但中国相应的政策标准还不到位。

还有很多外向型出口企业,因为欧美所谓的“绿色贸易壁垒”,被迫在向低碳转型,坏事变成了好事。当然也有很多企业担负不起这个绿色成本,倒掉了,带来很多社会问题。

另外像沃尔玛这种大的采购商,也开始在中国低碳经济发展中扮演非常重要的角色。他们供应链上的一些企业已经开始行动,但整个供应链系统还很难理顺。地方政府要解决就业和应对GDP的压力,有时会放松对企业的监管力度。

比较糟糕的是,一些大的跨国企业也利用中国不健全的法律法规体系,在低碳环保发展中的表现差强人意,很多都实行双重标准 。

中国企业的低碳发展,整体发展趋势是非常好的,但我们要明白自己的局限是什么。

中外对话:您对哥本哈根会议结果有什么样的预期,对中国会有什么样的影响?


吴昌华:不太可能有奇迹发生。奥巴马政府现在很危险,已经没有多少政治资本了,不太可能冒险在哥本哈根会议上给出实质性的承诺。

我个人的愿望,再加上实际的可能性,我觉得还是能达成一个协议。这个协议里面应该包含几个机制,尤其是资金机制,这是最关键的。技术转让很难讲,希望能有一些切实的操作机制出来。适应基金上,发达国家必须要给出一个定量的承诺。

中国应对气候变化的作为已经远远超出了国际社会的期望,在哥本哈根会议之前和会议之中都可以比较放松,只要把自己的成就向世界讲清楚就可以了。

中国真正的压力是在哥本哈根之后如何做。不管公约会议达成什么样的协议,我们还是要回到中国,一个地区一企业地去解决现实当中的很多问题,摸索出一条低碳发展的中国道路。


首页图片来自 World Economic Forum
 

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

金融机制不是解决问题的办法

运用金融机制,譬如发放污染执照,恰恰与我们所急需的建立一个“去碳化”的世界相反。

而且,那些金融机制涉及到的大量资金可能会用在与别国的交易上,特别是用于高风险国家身上,他们要求发达国家给予经济援助来换取他们在哥本哈根会议上的承诺,而不再坚持让发达国家减少温室气体排放量。

Translated By: Fan Yu

Financial mechanisms are not the answer

Financial mechanisms such as those which provide a licence to pollute are the opposite of what is so urgently needed - a world which has "decarbpnised".

Further, much of the money which those mechanisms would involve is likely to be used up in transaction costs - particularly in the sort of high risk country that is demanding money from industrialised countries in return for compliance at Copenhagen instead of insisting that those industrialised countries reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

气候问题解决与经济刺激 (1)

人类文明初期、地下矿藏未被开发时,动物吸入氧气呼出二氧化碳气,植物光合作用、吸收二氧化碳气排出氧气,因此当时的大气环境,是一个正常循环的链条。随着人类工业文明的进步,大量石油、煤碳等地下矿藏被开采应用。矿藏的应用过程,向大气中释放了大量的,多余的二氧化碳等温室气体,这些温室气体打破了,原先正常的大气循环链条,造成气候变暖。
据以上可以得出以下结论:
大气循环链条中:
增加了一个工业排放问题, 二氧化碳释放环节的能力壮大。
同时由于人为砍伐林木减少了森林植被, 二氧化碳吸收环节的能力缩小。
解决气候变暖必须要做:
大气循环链条中:
减少工业排放的数量, 二氧化碳释放环节的能力缩小。
秸秆木炭取代林木炭,恢复增加森林植被 取得 二氧化碳吸收环节的能力壮大。
(下续)

Climate change resolution and economic incentive

At the beginning of human civilization, when the mineral resources were not exploited, animals inhaled oxygen and exhaled carbon dioxide, plants did photosynthesis: taking in carbon dioxide while exhausting out oxygen; so the atmosphere at that time was a virtuous cycle. With the industrialization progressing, large amount of oil as well as minerals were exploited and used. The use of those minerals released surplus big amount of green house gas like carbon dioxide. The gas broke the normal cycle and made the global warming. Then we came up a conclusion; which is: in the chain of the cycle, industrial exhausts was an addition part of it, and that means carbon dioxide release became more powerful. Meanwhile, because forests were destroyed by cutting the trees, the photosynthesis part became less powerful. Use straw charcoals instead of woods, restore forests, minimize the releasing amount of carbon dioxide.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

气候问题解决与经济刺激(2)

秸秆木炭取代林木炭,为什么?
农作物作为短生长期植物,随着作物的成熟收获,作物本身已经死亡。如果“农作物秸秆”任其在自然条件下废弃腐烂,将产生大量的甲烷,甲烷是二氧化碳温室效应的20多倍,同时被还原性微生物释放成大量二氧化碳,形成大量温室气体,造成严重环境污染。
如果“农作物秸秆”加以科学利用,将其炭化生产成木炭或深加工产品,应用于工农业发展中,就可以取代传统林木炭。从而节约、恢复林木,增加森林植被的二氧化碳吸收能力,减少温室气体,解决气候变暖。

Climate change resolution and economic incentive

Why is straw charcoal able to replace woods? Crops are grown in short-term cycle. With the ripe and harvest process, crops themselves have been dead. If we let it go, those straws will rot and produce a large amount of methane, whereas, methane is 20 times as the effect of carbon dioxide to green house effect. At the same time it will release carbon dioxide by the function of microorganism, form green house gas and seriously pollute the environment. If those straws can be scientifically used, charred into charcoal or made into deep processed products, it would eventually replace woods. In the light of this situation, woods can be saved and restored, forest's ability to absorb carbon dioxide can be elevated, green house gas can be reduced and the problem of climate change will be solved.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

气候问题解决与经济刺激(5)

从事土壤及气候研究的、南京大学潘根兴教授对标本进行了化验,质量非常稳定。如果将秸秆炭化还田,可有效改善土壤环境、利于作物生长,解决土壤连续耕作障碍。并且能够在土壤中,稳定的存在300年左右。
作物生长光合作用,吸收空气中的二氧化碳和水形成养分。秸秆经过炭化得到质量稳定的炭,就可以将空气中的二氧化碳固定下来。施于土壤将极大的改善我国农田土壤状况,即解决土壤连续耕作障碍,又可以将二氧化碳储存300年左右,极大的降低气候变暖的压力。
推广开来、功在当代利在千秋,成本可从cdm交易中解决一部分,剩余则需政府补贴。
软质秸秆炭化技术研究,并非不能具备商业价值、和形成、秸秆能源化利用新产业,而且前景非常好。但是需要深入科研,并且需要大量经费,本人是个人研究没有经费来源、也无力承担,所以不便更深入探讨。

Solving Climate Issues and Economic Stimulus.(5)

Professor Pan Genxing at Nanjing University is actively engaged in soil climate research and is in the process of carrying out laboratory tests on several specimens that show that the soil quality is extremely stable. If we are able to carbonise field straw, then this will effectively improve the soil environment and would be beneficial to crop growth. It would also consequently solve the continuous soil cultivation barriers. Furthermore, such a process would be capable of stabilising soil cultivation within the next 300 years. Crop photosynthesis; absorbing carbon dioxide in air and water to form nutrients. If straw was to undergo the carbonisation process then it would succeed in obtaining the stability of carbon, and would reduce the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Utilising soil in this particular way will greatly improve China’s soil farming situation, but solving the continuous soil cultivation barriers. Moreover, carbon dioxide can be stored for up to 300 years thus reducing greatly the pressure of global warming. Pushing for expansion, positive results in the present will benefit generations for thousands of years. The costs of CDM business transactions are only one part of the solution with government subsidies remaining. Soft straw carbonisation technology research is not impossible with commercial added value, the prospects of which appear very good. But, we need more in depth research as well as an increase in funding. I, myself am not the source of individual research funding and am powerless to assume further responsibility and so the inconvenience caused will be even greater.
This comment was translated by Laura Bewley.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

气候问题解决与经济刺激(3)

秸秆炭化解决气候变暖的两条路;作为短生长期植物的农作物秸秆,首先要划分为两种;一种是以棉花、向日葵、蓖麻、等为代表的(包括灌木丛和修剪的枝条),材质比重相对较重的、化归为“硬质秸秆”(以下简称硬质秸秆)。另一种是以玉米、小麦、水稻等为代表的(包括树叶和杂草),材质比重相对较轻的,化归为软质秸秆(以下简称软质秸秆)。

1 、硬质秸秆:用庞佃丰发明的秸秆炭化设备,炭化硬质秸秆。所得秸秆木炭,(以棉秆例)固定碳含量:72%、发热值:6200大卡。这两项木炭质量硬指标,已经与传统林木炭基本一致。我国每年:佛香、蚊香等香类,鞭炮、礼花等黑火药类,活性炭类等工业行业;高科技农业;火锅、烧烤、取暖等民用行业;每年消耗的林木炭近2千万吨。而林木炭的生产是需要3倍的木材产出1吨林木炭。如果以硬质秸秆所生产的“秸秆木炭”取代传统“林木炭”,将每年节约近6千万吨木材。让每年节约的近6千万吨木材的树木继续生长(一棵大树生长60年吸收1吨二氧化碳),它将成为每年持续增大的“地球绿肺”。让它去吸收工业排放到大气中的,那些多余的二氧化碳,将极大的减少温室气体,降低气候变暖。在降低气候变暖压力的同时,废弃秸秆就转变成了生产资源。在秸秆木炭及其深加工产品,生产销售获取经济效益的同时,一个全新的,以废弃秸秆资源化利用、为基础的,秸秆新能源产业成型,这将为国民经济增加一个新产业。

(期待进一步加强政策引导;让能用秸秆木炭做生产原料的企业,必须用秸秆木炭。让不能用秸秆木炭做生产原料的企业,去研究秸秆木炭、取代传统林木炭的技术。逐步实现以木材为代价的传统木炭,退出历史舞台。迎来工业文明与生态环境、相和谐的新时代。)

(后续)

Climate change resolution and economic incentive(3)

There are two ways of charred straw to solve climate change. Straw as a kind of short-term-grown crop can be divided into two categories. One is "hard straw" including cotton, sunflower, Castor and those relatively heavy plants. Another category is called "soft straw" including corn, wheat, rice and those relatively lightweight plants.1."hard straw“: Use the equipment invented by Pang Xifeng to make the hard straw charred. The straw charcoal we get, take cotton straw for instance, has 72% of the fixed carbon rate, and 6200 Kcal of calorific value. These two indexes approximately reach the same level as wood charcoal does. In China,20 million tonnes of wood charcoal is consumed annually, including fragrance (fragrance of Buddha,mosquito incense and etc.), gunpowder (firecrackers and fireworks), industrial use (active carbon), high tech agriculture and civil use (hotpot and oven). Whereas, 3 tonnes of woods is required to produce 1 tonne of wood charcoal. If we use straw charcoal instead of wood charcoal, we will save some 60 million tonnes of woods. If we let those saved woods keep growing(a tree lives 60 yeas and absorb 1 tonne carbon dioxide), they will become an increasing "green lung" of the world. They can absorb the extra green house gas emitted by industries and relieve the situation of climate change. At the same time, those waste straws could become a resource for production. This can both get economic profits by straw charcoal and its deep processed production and become a new industry of the national economy.

We sincerely hope that under good policy guidance, those enterprises which use straw charcoal as raw materials keep using it, and those which doesn't start to study it and replace wood charcoal with straw charcoal. Then we would realize the idea that wood charcoal is going to get off the stage of history and confront the new era of harmony between industrialization and ecological environment.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

气候问题解决与经济刺激(4)

2、软质秸秆:以玉米、小麦、水稻等为代表的软质秸秆。在我国许多地区,大部分被粉碎还田,有效的控制了,由于农民焚烧造成的、空气污染。但是被粉碎还田的秸秆,混杂在土壤中照样会腐烂、产生甲烷,和被还原性微生物释放成二氧化碳。目前本人对于软质秸秆(包括树叶和草)的炭化研究,已经取得初步进展。虽然软质秸秆、由于本身材质限制,无法生产出可用于、工业生产的,高质量的秸秆木炭。但是完全可以获得,质量非常稳定的秸秆炭。
(后续)

Climate change resolution and economic incentive(4)

2."Soft Straw ": Representatives of soft straws are corn, wheat and rice. In many places in China, most of those soft straws are shattered and put back to the field. This effectively controls the air pollution caused by incinerating. However, shattering straws and putting them back to field could inevitably produce methane and carbon dioxide released by microorganism. I have made some progress in the study of soft straw. Even though soft straws can not be produced into straw charcoal of high quality for industry owing to its material limitations, it still can be converted to stable straw charcoal.