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中美青年气候变化宣言为何夭折

哥本哈根的政治角力迫使中美青年代表放弃了筹备良久的联合宣言,孟斯解释了事情的经过与原由。

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2009年12月19日《哥本哈根协议》在争议中出炉。同日,在哥本哈根的一群中国青年经过激烈争论,决定放弃推出一份名为《中美青年联合宣言》的文件,因为他们感觉自己不能把握可能引发的风险。

这份宣言的产生,源于联合国气候变化谈判期间美青年的一次交流。宣言回顾了中美青年如何从交流中形成信任和信心,认识到肩负的责任和使命。对于正在走向僵局的谈判,中美青年表达了对全球气候变化现状的关切,期待两国政府付出更多努力。

但随着中国政府在谈判中面临的国际压力越来越大,这些二十岁出头的年轻人终于决定放弃推出宣言。他们最大的顾虑是:无法控制西方媒体和政客的解读,可能给中国政府带来更大压力,从而给自身带来不可预知的风险。

“我们害怕被利用。” 就读于北京一所著名高校新闻专业的任姣洁说。去年底,任姣洁和四十多名中国青年出现在哥本哈根会场。这是中国青年参加气候变化国际谈判人数最多的一次,他们希望打破中国青年以往在这个国际议题上的沉默。

历史性的光环给这些中国青年带来了超过二百次媒体报道。除介绍中国青年的环保工作、与国外组织交流,团队发起人、来自中国民间组织“中国青年应对气候变化行动网络”的赵祥宇介绍道:“作为一个拥有四亿青少年的国家,中国青年一定要发出自己的声音,表达对气候变化问题的看法和立场。”

他们开展的活动包括扮成中医,给参与者开出环保药方,以呼吁通过改变个人行为来保护地球健康。而在中美青年交流后,他们开始计划“发出自己的声音”,为推动谈判尽到理想中的使命。

12月10日,100多名中美青年在哥本哈根大学交流之后,双方各5名代表连夜筹划起草宣言,随后更多中国青年参与了修改。

任姣洁说,但随着事态发展,他们发现谈判远比想象中复杂,不是单纯的环境问题。

中美青年交流并起草宣言当日,包括中国在内的“基础四国”共同推出《北京文本》,这被认为是对偏袒发达国家的《丹麦文本》的回应,显示出发展中国家与发达国家之间的矛盾。这一矛盾对于长期关注气候变化者并非新闻。但随着美国对中国的公开指责,“世界第一大二氧化碳排放国”的地位令中国陷入尴尬。希拉里·克林顿随后抛出一千亿美元的资金援助和附加条件,即对中国减排透明度的要求,更引领发展中国家向中国施压。此时中国史无前例地面对来自发达与发展中国家的双重压力。此后,美国总统奥巴马在演讲中继续对中国施压。

同时,与美国商务部长骆家辉(华裔美国人)的会面再次令中国青年举棋不定。20分钟的会面,令中国青年有些不愉快。青年代表们本想得到骆家辉的支持,却发现对方的观点主要围绕对中国的指责。参与会面的汪宁回忆说,骆家辉“不谈历史责任,只讨论现状,指责中国二氧化碳排放太多”。

短短几天内局势的变化和亲身经历使中国青年内部产生了分歧。“我们不能把握媒体报道的方向,而现在美国却在想办法把矛头指向中国。”参加过《联合国气候变化框架公约》第十四次缔约方会议的李立说。一些持类似观点的中国青年也认为,此时推出宣言很可能被西方媒体(尤其是美国)放大为中国青年公民对其政府的施压,对中国不利。这是中国青年不愿看到的。

一位疲于应对谈判和媒体攻势的中国政府代表团官员私下对前来询问的青年说,这是个政治问题,他们不懂,不该参与。

而另一位中国谈判官员给出了积极评价,并特别嘱咐他们在宣言中提到《京都议定书》、双轨制共同但有区别的责任,以及对中国减排努力的肯定。对此,一些中国青年认为,这种语调容易被西方媒体解读为对政府观点的简单附和,仍将对中国造成负面影响。

鉴于经验不足,中国青年也曾征询不同的NGO和媒体人士。“有的建议利用这个机会,多要求发达国家减排。但另一派声音说我们不用搞得这么政治化。”参与写宣言的马逢蕾说。一位《中国青年报》记者则告诉他们不必考虑太多,只要做想做的事、说想说的话,发出青年的声音。

各种意见碰撞,使“我们共同的未来”原本纯粹的动机,失去了理想中的力度。

“中 国青年不应在这个公共议题前,就这样沉默离开。”在英国读书的孙茜仍支持发出宣言。而部分主张放弃者认为,缺少足够准备而仓促发言并不明智;另一部分认 为,对全人类命运的热情和责任感固然重要,但居第一位的责任感仍应绑定国家利益。有中国记者建议宣言以声援政府、给美国施压为目的比较稳妥。

“即使不提中国一亿五千万贫困人口,就算平均下来,中国人均GDP仍排在世界一百多名,中国无法承担过大的责任。”北京大学学生社团CDM Club会长孙小明说。

李莉娜作为《联合国气候变化框架公约》 下的青年组织网络联络人,对国内外青年有更多观察。她说:“与中国青年相比,西方年轻人很少经历经济发展给生活带来的深刻变化,因此在考虑气候变化问题 时,很少想到本国国力与民生问题。”她认为,尽管公民意识已见萌芽,但对本国实际困难的关注,和精神上对官方的自觉依附,仍然主导着他们的思维方式。

12月19日,各国首脑齐聚贝拉中心,就气候变化协议最后交锋,同晚,中国青年在旅馆投票,结果是:保持沉默。

回顾宣言搁浅始末,有些青年在博客中 表达了公民个体面对政治谈判的无力感。但李莉娜说:“也许中国青年可以继续尝试,试探我们参与政治的底线在哪里。”她认为,尽管短期内,现实处境和思维方 式的惯性,使中国青年在国际主义和国家利益中面临的两难,超乎他们能力所及,但除从自身生活方式做起,中国青年可以在更多调研的基础上,在国内用更强势的 姿态与政府进行对话,勇敢探索政治上的推动。她说:“毕竟现在已经不是二十年前的社会环境。”


孟斯是中外对话北京办公室执行编辑。


首页图片为赵祥宇(右)及其他中美青年代表在哥本哈根峰会,图片来源于中国青年代表团

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

联谊?

青年气候宣言?搞联谊吧?纯属扯淡。一帮政府高官搞不定的,小屁孩儿凑在一起能干吗,相约一起看2012?

Friendship?

Youth Climate Declaration? Making friends, right? What a load of crap. Can a few kids working together do what a gang of high officials can't? What, are they gonna meet up and watch 2012 together?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

什么都没有用?

回复1号评论:

这样说来,除了政府高官,不仅青年,什么人都不需要参与气候变化的行动了,NGO有什么用?普通老百姓抗议有什么用?“地球一小时”关灯行动有什么用?

是的,都没有什么用。我认为他们最大的用处是给政府和那些大排放单位施压。很多民主国家恐怕就是从这些“扯淡”中走过来的吧。

What's Completely Useless?

In reply to comment 1:

So what you're saying is that, apart from high- ranking officials, not only the young, but absolutely no- one need participate in the climate change movement- what use are NGOs? What use is the man in the street protesting? What use is the "Earth Hour" lights- out movement?

Right, they're all completely useless. As I see it, their greatest function lies in putting pressure on the government and high- emission companies. The fears of a great many democratic countries may well come from this "crap".

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

理性的中国青年

12月10日,中美青年交流后双方各5名代表开始起草宣言,而12月19号《哥本哈根协议》就在争议中出炉,请注意,是在争议当中。
这里有三个点支持不应当在此刻发表青年宣言:
1. 时间上只有9天,而且双方在此之前并未作出任何准备;
2. 起草者并非就完全熟悉该项事务。
3. 当时的政治气氛紧张,因此一份未经深思的宣言极有可能引来曲解。
我并不是反对青年有自己的想法和行动,但确实在那种环境下发表发表宣言还是得经过慎重考虑的。在我看来这不仅不是中国青年保守,相反 反映出他们的成熟一面。

China’s Rational Youth

On December 10th, following the China-US youth exchange, 5 delegates from each party began to draw up a declaration, and on December 19th the Copenhagen Accord was announced amidst controversy. Please note, it was amidst controversy. Here are three points in favour of not publishing the youth declaration at this moment:
1. The time period was only 9 days, and neither party had made any preparations whatsoever beforehand.
2. Those drawing up the declaration were not completely familiar with the affairs.
3. The political atmosphere at the time was tense, and thus a declaration which was not carefully considered was extremely likely to lead to misinterpretation.
I am not opposed to the youth having their own ideas and actions, but really, under these circumstances a declaration must still undergo careful consideration before being issued. In my opinion, not only is this not conservative by the Chinese youth, it is contrary to reflecting their maturity.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

美国青年如何看待这件事情?

政府有政府的立场,青年有青年的想法;

写好宣言不发出来也表示了中国青年的立场——我们关注和参与气候变化,但是我们并不希望搅入政治;

最后感兴趣的是,美国青年对此有什么观点?

How do American youth see this matter?

The government has its position, the youth have their ideas. A well written declaration has not been issued to express the position of China’s youth- we are concerned about and involved in climate change, but we do not wish to get into politics at all. Finally of interest is, what views do American youth have on this?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

公民社会只是传说

中国青年可以在更多调研的基础上,在国内用更强势的姿态与政府进行对话,勇敢探索政治上的推动。她说:“毕竟现在已经不是二十年前的社会环境。”—— 看看国内铺天盖地的灾难报道吧,对政府的批评到处都是,媒体天天喊着要争取公民话语权。岂止是青年,太多人想用更强势的姿态与政府对话了。但是想想政府对互联网的封锁就知道其道路之艰辛。

Civil Society is just a legend

Chinese youth may carry out more research, then take more assertive attitude negociating with Government domestically, to promote the political evolution. She said: "After all, the social environment is not as 20 years before." - Take a look at the overwhelming disaster coverage in this country, criticism of the government everywhere, and the media cried every day for the expression right of the citizens. More than just the young, too many people want to play a more forceful role in the dialogue with government. Nevertheless, It's not hard to imagine how difficult this road will be when you think about the government's blockade on the Internet.
translated by Ziju Yang

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

责任是不可推卸的

其实,有些时候经济再发达,环境都没有了又有什么意义呢,现在大多数政府存在的一个共同的缺点就是有些鼠目寸光,以牺牲环境还来得GDP又能够给人们带来什么,在这里争来争去,谁都怕吃亏,其实是在自我毁灭。

Responsibility cannot be avoided

Actually,prosperous economy means little without favorable environment condition sometimes. At present one of common shortcomings of most local governments is that they are somewhat short-sighted. What will it bring to people sacrificing the environment for the GDP ? Fighting over interests, everyone fears suffering losses. In fact, it is in self-destruction.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

中庸之道么

这种成熟里面,是避免激进和保守,对外部对自己都保持理性批判的态度。

The Middle Way?

The core of this kind of maturity consists of avoiding radicalism and conservatism, and maintaining a rational, critical attitude towards yourself and the world.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

对话的模型?

很棒的文章!我们亚洲协会(Asia Society)的成员上周做了一个“两岸对话”的企划,一群来自中国大陆、台湾和美国的大学生聚在一起来弥合他们意见的分歧,这或许能作为青年之间有关气候变化的交流模型。这非常有希望。
罗伯特•布洛克(Robert Bullock)
美国亚洲协会(Asia Society)

Model for Dialogue?

Great article! We at the Asia Society just did a program last week with "Strait Talk", a group of univ students from PRC, Taiwan, and US that works to bridge differences, that might serve as a model for youth exchange focused on climate change. Very promising. Robert Bullock, Asia Society

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

天命难违,天命未知

中国现在是个大国,除了天命,恐怕谁的话也不会听。中国又是家长制,首长永远是鲜花,你只能做绿叶。能做绿叶还是你无上的光荣呢!假设首长在哥本哈根让全世界人民高兴了,那是党的英明决策,政府的智慧,集体的力量的体现。鲜花都绽放了,更没有绿叶的事了。认命吧,做好你的绿叶该做的事,而不是出风头。哥本哈根没能放得出的卫星,难道就不能在中国,美国或者哪里放一下?去年天气不好,没放成,现在放嘛。不要抱怨这,抱怨那的,想干一件大事,一件好事,一件大好事,难道中国目前的条件还不够好吗?万事不可投机取巧,这是不得不对青年朋友说的话。

Do not fight against destiny

China is a strong power in the world and it will listen to no one but the destiny. In China, leaders are always the flowers and you can only be the leaves and it’s your honor to be a leaf. Even if the leaders at Copenhagen make the whole world satisfied, all credit goes to the Party and the government. It will have nothing to do with you “leaves”. Do not show off and mind your own business. Do not complain about everything. Is not China big enough to do something good and something big? Young man, do not be opportunistic.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

也许离题的评论

中国一向有“以天下为己任”的光荣传统,青年精英更以此为自许,可是,在“该出手的时候”,却突然保持沉默了,有人说,这是中国青年的成熟,在我看来,这是“乖孩子”们的继续表演——要是说错了话,估计大人们会不高兴,所以,少说为佳。

既然青年们在外的表现,那么乖,我也不想多说,有几点,备忘吧。

其一,说自己的想说的话,别考虑政府,也别事先假设会被别人利用。替政府考虑,一方面你们做不到,另一方面,政府方面也不高兴——要是政府的事情,你们都考虑了,那政府官员干什么啊。

其二,只代表自己说话,别以为是代表中国青年的。

其三,华裔美国商务部长骆家辉,也是“炎黄子孙”,中国青年想和他拉老乡关系,套近乎,结果不太好。记得,我在反对公祭黄帝的短文中,说过:一个现代国家的凝聚力,来自共同的价值观,而不是同宗同源。这件事,证明我的说法,没错。所以,我感谢这些年轻人。

但我不得不说,这些青年人,不理解美国人的价值观,包括在美国的中国人的价值观。

其四,“只谈现在,不谈历史责任”——我觉得也没错,要是谈历史责任,从哪儿开始算呢?美国人也许会说,中国人的二氧化碳排放,有5000多年历史了,美国才200年。而且,中国的人口,一直是世界上第一位的。尽管人均水平比较低,可是,再小的平均值,乘以一个亿也是一个了不得的数字。

所以,美国人的说法,也不算错。

我们要指责美国的,是美国和资本主义缔造了一种“大规模制造大规模消费”的腐朽的生活方式,而且,把全世界包括中国,引导了同一条道路上。这条路,只有美国人走,没问题,可是,走的人多了,就是死路一条了。

其五,美国对中国的指责,我认为另外一个值得我们反思的是:公有制和计划经济,仅就低碳排放而言,也是一种不合理、无效率的制度。比方说,一座新楼,才建起来,就炸掉,重修,这种事情,在西方国家,几乎是不可思议的。不会没有,但肯定不会像我们国家这么疯狂。

我听过一个笑话,也反映了“国有经济”的无效和高排放。

某高校后勤处长,巡视地下管线建设,他问施工方:管线的寿命是多少年?答:50年。后勤处长眉头紧锁,说:太长了。

施工方马上改口说:10年。后勤处长再次叹气,说:还是太长了,我再有9年半就退休了。

其六,中国人的消费观念,也与西方不同。换言之,中国文化是“食”文化,而中国人的胃口,几乎是一个无底洞,“坐吃山空”,想想都可怕。以前,我们是消费不起;现在,有钱了,放开了去吃,全世界人民的担心,绝对不是多余的。

说了不少了,估计很多中国人不高兴,但我的觉悟就这么高——我只代表我自己、说自己的话,我不考虑是否被别人利用,我也不怕给谁增加负担。

A Comment That Might Be Off the Track

China always has the glorious tradition of “regarding the world as one’s own responsibility,” which is more prided on by the youth elites. Yet they suddenly remain silent when they should get rolling. Though it is what some people say the maturity of Chinese youth, but from my point of view, it is the continuing performance of “the well-behaved children”. Because their “parents” will not be pleased when they say something wrong, so it is better to say less.

Now that the youth’s performance outside is so well-behaved, I would not say more. But there are some points to be addressed.

First of all, say what you want to say, don’t think of the government, nor suppose before hand that you will be used by the others. On the one hand, you still have no capability to think in the government’s shoes; on the other hand, government will not be pleased – if you have considered all government affairs, then what’s the role of the officials?

Second, speak on your own behalf, do not consider yourself to be representing all the Chinese young people.

Third, the US secretary of commerce, Gary Locke, is also of Chinese descent. But Chinese youth‘s intention to cotton up to him did not result well. I remember that I have argued in a short article about objecting the public memorial ceremony to Emperor Huang: “The cohesion of a modern nation is based on the same values, not the same origins.” And this incidence has exactly proven my argument. Thus, I give my thanks to these young people.

But there is something I have to say: these youngsters have not comprehended the American values, including those of the ABC.

Fourth, I think there’s no wrong in the saying “do not discuss historical responsibilities, only the current circumstances”, for discussing the historical responsibilities requires us to figure out when to start. Perhaps Americans will say that, compared with China’s 5000 years of CO2 emission, USA has only 200 years. Furthermore, due to Chinese population is always the top of the world, even having a low per capita level, the number will be extremely serious if a very small average value multiplies 100 million.

In this sense, the American’s opinion should not be counted as wrong.

Yet, what we have to accuse USA for is that USA and capitalism have created a decadent life style featured by “large-scale manufacturing and large-scale consumption”. Moreover, they have led the whole world, China included, to the same path. This path functions ok when only Americans walks on, but it becomes a dead end when more peoples step on.

Fifth, USA’s criticism to China has another point worth our reflection: only considering low carbon emission, public ownership and planned economy is an irrational and inefficient system. For example, to blast a new building which has just completed and to rebuild it is almost unbelievable in western countries. Of course there will be some similar cases there, but definitely not so crazy like our country.

I have heard a joke which shows the state-owned economy’s inefficiency and high consumption:

When inspecting the underground pipelines constructions, the section chief of logistics in a college asks the constructor: “What’s the duration of the pipelines?” Answer: “50 years.” The chief frowned: “It is too long.”

Then the constructor at once corrects himself: “10 years actually.” But the chief sighs once more, saying: “Still too long, I will retire in 9 and a half years’ time. ”

Sixth, Chinese’s idea of consumption also differs from the westerns’. In another words, Chinese culture is more the food culture: Chinese people’s appetites seem to be bottomless. It is scary even to think about the idea of “sit idle and eat”. We can not afford to consume before, but with abundant money in hand now, we loosen our straps and eat. The worries from around the world absolutely are not redundant.

Since I have said a lot, I guess many Chinese people are not pleased. But my understanding only represents myself, I only say what I think without considering whether I am used nor scared of giving any burden on somebody.

Translated by Jieping Hu.