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埃塞俄比亚积极推动大坝工程

埃塞俄比亚一向以非洲的“水塔”自居,然而该国在追求实现其在十年内将能源水平提高15倍的战略目标的同时,引发了一场关于水力发电的争论。克桑•赖斯报道。

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高高耸立的峡谷从埃塞俄比亚的南部划过。当奥莫河流到峡谷的脚下时突然遁入岩石中的一个隧道。挖掘机不停地在谷底裸露的河床上翻刨着泥土和石块。不久,这里将会耸立起一面巨大的水泥墙。

高达243米的吉比3大坝将是非洲大陆上最高的大坝。作为埃塞俄比亚耗资数十亿美元的水力发电热潮的重头戏,吉比3一直饱受争议。

埃塞俄比亚一直以“非洲水塔”自居。为了结束其能源短缺的局面,埃塞俄比亚计划在那些从高原地区奔流而下的河流网络上建设一个巨型水坝网。

在意大利和中国建筑企业的帮助下,到2020年,埃塞俄比亚将有希望将其发电能力增加15倍,成为该地区的电力输出大国。

埃塞俄比亚电力公司EEPCo)生产建设主管杜拉哈基姆·穆罕默德说:“对于我们这样的发展中国家而言,水坝是必须的。有了电,就有了一切。”

然而,水利项目发展的步伐和规模却让环保团体提高了警惕。环保组织认为,这些项目没有进行正规的环境影响评价。

吉比3的发电能力将达到1870兆瓦,是去年埃塞俄比亚供电总量的一倍。尽管如此,吉比3依然招致了极大的反对声。

三月,一些舆论群体,包括总部设在加州伯克利的国际河流组织、以及伦敦的国际生存组织等联合起来在网上发布请愿,目的就是为了阻止水坝的修建。他们警告说,水坝将会给下游部落的社会和经济带来潜在的灾难性影响。[对此,大坝的建设方已经进行了反驳。]

国际河流组织非洲活动人士泰瑞·海瑟维表示:“这个项目不仅没有必要,而且具有极大的破坏性。”

没有人会反对埃塞俄比亚急需增加电力供应这一事实。埃塞俄比亚的农村地区人口达8千万,而其中仅有2%的家庭通上了电。而在首都亚的斯亚贝巴,停电更是家常便饭。

同时,据EEPCo表示,经济的快速发展,以及人口的高速增长导致电力需求以每年25%的速度上升。

而该国的地理条件决定了水力发电是一个最显而易见的解决方法。尼罗河两条主要支流之一的青尼罗河有85%的水源来自于埃塞俄比亚境内的塔纳湖。此外,该国境内还有十几个大型流域。鉴于其从高处顺流而下的河流水量可观,因此据估计,该国水力发电能力有可能达到45000MW,居非洲第二,仅次于刚果民主共和国。

几个新建水利项目计划已经获得埃塞俄比亚的批准,将在未来几年破土动工。其中包括2100MW的青尼罗河大型项目。该项目还将服务于苏丹和埃及。与此同时,一些水坝项目已经完工,或即将竣工。吉比3项目由意大利的撒利尼建筑公司承建,并于一月份正式开工奠基。该项目长达150公里的水库将与420MW的吉比2电力项目首尾相接。

在其北边,撒利尼公司正在塔纳湖附近修建另外一座水电站。而曾经参与建设长江三峡水利大坝中国水利水电建设集团公司也刚刚完成另外一个工程。

这种对于大坝的狂热并不仅仅是为了要照亮埃塞俄比亚的家庭那么简单。在一些人的眼中,这个国家土地上流淌的河流就跟其他国家的石油和矿产一样:是宝贵的外汇资源。

埃塞俄比亚计划在未来的几年里开始向邻国输出电力。通往吉布提苏丹的输电线路已经开始施工,与肯尼亚之间也已经签订了供电协议。如果一切顺利的话,电力有可能会成为埃塞俄比亚最具价值的出口产品。

“(出售电力)具有巨大的潜力,”穆罕默德说道,“我们最终还将与埃及,还可能与欧洲建立电网连接。我们甚至还会想南非供应电力。”

然 而,政府的战略却面临着一个巨大的问题:那就是资金短缺。面对吉比3项目高达15.5亿欧元($18.8亿)的造价,该工程时刻需要来自外界的信贷援助。 可是,埃塞俄比亚却决定在融资还未到位的情况下开始工程的建设,在既未进行招标,也未完成环境影响测评,甚至都未征询下游居民意见的情况下,与撒利尼公司 签订了合同。由于这一做法违背了世界银行等潜在贷方的透明度原则,因此使这些机构踌躇不前。

2008年,在项目开工两年后,一份环境调研报告最终得以发表。并且,正在考虑为这个资金仍然不足的项目进行贷款的非洲发展银行(AfDB)也正在进行评估。

据国际河流组织称,大坝使一些群众不得不迁居他处。而与此同时,居住在奥莫谷深处以及受奥莫河水孕育的肯尼亚图尔卡纳湖周围的50多万人的生活将会发生翻天覆地的变化。该组织还表示,水坝将彻底终结牧民和农户数百年来赖以生存的自然洪水周期,并使图尔卡纳湖的水位下降。

国际河流组织认为,鉴于其它几座大坝已经几乎完全可以满足国内的电力需求,因此,叫停该项目将不会对埃塞俄比亚的人民造成影响。

然而,政府却对吉比3项目所带来的环境顾虑不屑一顾。迹象表明,政府依然执着于大型水坝战略,并且为了绕开环保组织阻挠其从国际贷方那里获得资助的努力,就像他们阻挠吉比3项目那样,政府转向东方寻求帮助。中国水利水电建设集团公司已经同意在奥莫河下游建设1,600 MW的吉比4大坝项目。而该项目定会引起进一步的争论。中国政府将对该项目进行融资。


在电力短缺的局面中挣扎

去年11月份世界银行公布的一份关于非洲基础设施的报告中包含着这样一组引人注目的数据:撒哈拉沙漠以南48个非洲国家的总人口为8亿,而这些国家的发电量却仅仅相当于4500万人口的西班牙。

报告的作者们认为,电力是非洲所面临的最大的基础设施方面的挑战。不论是南非这样的经济强国,还是塞拉利昂这样的弱国,30多个国家都经常面临着电力短缺的局面。并且,由于运营成本和有限竟争等原因,其电价也经常是其它发展中国家的两倍多。

而缺乏投资是导致这种局面的主要原因。1970年,在撒哈拉沙漠以南非洲地区大部分国家取得独立后不久,这些国家的人均发电能力是南亚的三倍。而到2000年,局面却发生了彻底的转变。南亚的人均电力水平几乎是撒哈拉沙漠以南非洲地区的两倍。

据世界银行称,这种趋势还在继续。撒哈拉沙漠以南非洲地区的平均个人用电量仅够一个100瓦的灯泡每天点亮3小时。而发电能力还在持续的下降之中。

报告还指出,为了满足其电力需求,撒哈拉沙漠以南非洲地区需要在基础设施上每年耗资$410亿。而其中大部份支出是用于新建项目投资。


来源:http://www.guardian.co.uk/
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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

大约十年前,停电在我所居住的城市还是家常便饭的事儿(沿海大城市)。虽然我很怀念那些漆黑、燥热但是宁静的夜晚,家人朋友放下手中的电视遥控器和书报,在阳台上点着蜡烛聊天……但是,电对于一个国家的经济发展太重要了,我想老百姓未必情愿回到那个年代,政府就更不用说了。

如果所有的大坝建设都能再谨慎一些,动工之前多做些环境测评和咨询,我相信的确能降低对生态的破坏。

但当富国插着腰,指责穷国“见钱眼开”,环评不是告诉他们如何降低破坏,而是直接画一个大叉,穷国如何能接受?这在中国有句俗语能表达——站着说话不腰疼。

我们需要引入更实际有效的讨论方式,让穷国在放缓开发步伐的同时,能有切实的收益。

Electricity

About ten years ago, power outages were commonplace in the city I used to live (a large coastal city). Although I do miss those dark, hot, but quiet nights when friends and family put down books and newspapers, turned off TVs, lit candles on the balcony and talked, I still think electricity is too important to the development of a nation's economy. I'd guess that normal people don't necessarily feel nostalgic for those times, let alone the government.

If all of these large dam projects could proceed with a bit more caution, and carry out more environmental evaluation and consultation, I genuinely believe that damage to the environment would be lessened.

However, when rich countries butt in and criticise poor countries for "only looking for money", they are not telling the poorer countries how to reduce environmental damage, but instead directly pointing fingers: How can that be acceptable to the latter? This can be summed up in the Chinese saying- "Easier said than done".

We need to introduce more realistic and efficient methods of discussion, letting developing countries slow the pace of modernisation, and at the same time obtain practical benefit.

(Translator: Ruaridhi Bannatyne)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

吉比3未必在商业上可行

埃塞尔比亚将吉比3(Gibe III )推入服役,以图赚得外汇的做法是鲁莽而草率的。邻近国家的用电需求少得可怜。并且,这些国家的经济薄弱到甚至无法对政治敏感的选民提供补贴。

与其进口电力,这些邻近国家不如想办法减少本国电力在输送过程中的损失。

埃塞尔比亚要拿这项工程赚得的外汇干什么呢?买更多武器(猜猜谁会卖给他?)来对付厄立特里亚或是索马里?

此外,将下游居民的用水生活视为可交易的商品也是一件可耻之事。

此篇由雅晴翻译

Gibe III is probably not commercially viable

It would be very rash for Ethiopia to commission Gibe III in order to earn Ethiopia foreign exchange. The payment record of the power utilities in neighbouring countries is poor. Further, those countries have such weak economies that they could probably not afford to subsidise electricity consumption even in politically sensitive consistuencies.

Rather than import electricity, it would probably be more cost effective for those neighbours to reduce losses in transmissions and distribution locally.

What will the Ehtiopian government do with the any profit it makes from the project - by more weapons (supplied by guess who!) to fight Eritrea and Somalia?

It is also disgraceful that the livelihoods of peoples downstream of the proposed dam are considered expendable.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

不要企图用吉比3赚钱

所有埃塞俄比亚的邻国,如肯尼亚、苏丹,甚至是较小的吉布提,都在建立他们自己的发电大坝或者寻求其他的可替代能源。我不认为埃塞俄比亚会从吉比3上大量获益,尤其是如果他们想要把能源出口到邻国或临近地区,如南非和欧洲。

Don't expect to make money from Gibe III

Kenya, Sudan and even tiny Djibuti all neighbors of Ethiopia are either building their own electric generating dams or are trying to find alternative source of energy. I fail to see how Ethiopia will benefit greatly from Gibe III especially if it plans to export power to neighboring countries and regions such as South Africa and Europe.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

我们有一个负责的政府

埃塞俄比亚正在尽力最好地利用我们的自然资源,就像每个发达国家所做的那样。我认为埃塞俄比亚政府重视我们的环境问题不亚于重视我们的社会发展。而往往很多其他发展中国家对他们的环境问题都有所忽视。

Rasyo 来自埃塞俄比亚

we have a responsible government

Ethiopia is doing its best to utilize what ever resource nature gave it. Every developed country did so. I think the Ethiopian government is concerned with the environment equally to the development it aspires to bring about to its people. Viewing all developing countries as negligent to the environment is a usual rhetoric.
Rasyo from Ethiopia

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

米燕·哈桑女士

现在埃塞俄比亚乡村的生活方式,尤其是南部地区,仍然处在较原始的阶段,几乎和他们邻近的野生动物们的生活水平一致。没有电,没有公共医疗设施,没有自来水,几乎和他们几百万年前生活在“露西”时代的祖先一样。

电力是非常急需的以便于来改善他们的生活。而埃塞俄比亚唯一可依靠的发电资源就是他们的天然水力。吉比3工程只能满足非常少的需求量。他们需要更多的能源和更多的大坝。上天给予埃塞俄比亚的资源就是水力,政府和人民的想要利用这一点的想法是很好的。

秘密组织的新殖民主义行为,如所谓的“国际河流”,他们很多的运动脱离人民的需求是完全不可被接受的。众所周知他们的行为违背了非洲人民的利益。

充满非洲人民血汗的非洲大陆与支持他们的友好国家终将获胜!

米燕·哈桑女士 来自南埃塞俄比亚的金卡

Mrs. Miryam Hassan

The present life style in rural Ethiopia particularly in the southern regions is vastly in a primitive stage, the same standard as the wild animals live close to them. No electricity, no public health care facilities, to running tapped water. I.e. in the same manner almost as their foremothers and forefathers lived to the times of “Lucy” millions years ago.
Electric Power is required to transform their lives. The only viable resource Ethiopia has for power generation is her God’s and nature given Hydro. The Gilgel Bibe III project satisfies only few percentage of the total demand. More power more dams are needed. Ethiopia's God given resouce is Hydro. The Ethiopian Government’s and its people ambition is commendable.
Neo-colonialist minded with clandestine organization, such as the so called International Rivers, etc venomous campaign to derail people’s need is totally unacceptable. It is just rubbish. Their hidden agenda against the interest of Africans is well known.
Africa with the blood, sweat of her sons and daughters coupled with the support of friendly countries shall prevail!
Miryam Hassan, Jinka , South Ethiopia

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

离我们远点

非洲受到外部势力干涉其内政和领土争端
一个世纪前,殖民者伪装成传教士的模样,成了非洲主要的殖民统治。为了赢得解放,她付出了血的代价,无数的非洲儿女献出了自己的生命。
现在出现了新的伪装形式,有些人乔装打扮成“运动组织”的样子,他们受雇于对非洲的发展有负面影响的外部势力。小心点这些组织,例如,国际生存组织,国际河流组织。
我们让这些组织替我们斗争,替非洲说话。但是我们不需要他们。我们了解我们自己。
非洲要对这种威胁提高警惕。

埃塞俄比亚的发电项目是为造福她的子民所迈出的一步,这为所有正义人士所共鉴。

M. G . Bongo 法国巴黎

We do NOT need them

Africa had encountered the mingling of external powers in its domestic and sovereign affairs.
• A couple of century ago colonizers disguised as “Jesuit missionaries” were the lead units for colonizing Africa . Africa has liberated herself paying dear lives of her sons and daughters
• Presently, new style of disguise is being is used as “Campaign groups” who are paid by some external forces that have negative interest towards development of Africa . Beware of these organizations , such as Survival International , International Rivers.
We have made them to campaign for us and to be spoke-person for Africa . We do NOT need them. We know for our selves.
Africa need to be vigilant against such threats.

Ethiopia's power generation projects is a step for development of its citizens as shared by all positive minded human.

M. G . Bongo, Paris – France

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

某先生

从两方面来说!一方面西方指控埃斯俄比亚太过于依赖外界救助来供养他们的人民,而另一方面他们并不真的希望他们可以摆脱贫困和依赖外界的恶性循环。众所周知埃塞俄比亚有八千万人口,并且正在增长,人们极度需要能源(事实上需要很多)。那么,埃塞俄比亚如何来获得能源,考虑一下:
1.开发石油能源太贵,且对全球环境不利(全球变暖)。
2.开发核能源更贵且危险,而且也可能被发展成核武器(想到伊朗和朝鲜)。
3.太阳能和风力发电依然很贵,技术还没发展完全,不可依赖。

因此,考虑到所有的能量来源都有其“不可避免的罪恶性”,水力发电要比其他方法好得多,且在埃塞俄比亚可以大量得到。那些所谓的环境专家声称要保护下游的居民是显然非常愚蠢的或根本就是种族歧视主义。那里有什么需要保护的?充满慢性疾病、饥荒、和落后的生活方式还是其他?

Mr

Talk about double standards! On the one hand the west is accusing countries such as Ethiopia for relying too much on aid to feed their own people, and on the other hand they don't really want them to free themselves out of the vicious cycle of poverty and dependency. Everybody agrees that Ethiopia with its 80 million, and growing, population need energy desperately (a lot of it, as a matter of fact). Then, how is the country going to get that energy considering:
1. Fossil energy is too expensive and unfriendly to the environment (global warming).
2. Nuclear energy is even more expensive and hazardous, plus can further be developed to be used for nuclear weapons (remember Iran & North Korea).
3. Solar and wind energy is still expensive, not properly developed yet, and not reliable.
Hence, even if we consider all energy resources are 'necessary evil' then hydro-electric power is much less evil than the rest, and abundantly available in Ethiopia. The so called environmentalists talk of preserving the life-style of downstream societies is downright idiocy or sheer racism. What is there to be reserved? a life style marred with chronic illnesses, famine, backwardness and more?...

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匿名 | Anonymous

坚持到底

同意楼上的看法...这种生活方式可能有对一些西方人类学家,游手好闲的游客或者是邪恶的种族主义者来说或许有点价值,他们把自己的文明生活方式和我们相比,还自我感觉良好。但是对于我们来说,这样的生活方式是我们一直想摆脱的。还有那些乐见埃塞俄比亚脆弱和落后的,因为他们觉得埃塞俄比亚的发展会威胁到本国的利益。也因此,他们一直在不懈地破坏我们国家的和平与进步。
我们把这些当做是路上的崎岖之地,也许会拖慢我们进步的步伐。但我们会继续勇往直前,战胜我们的敌人,不管他们怎么武装自己,不管他们是什么种族,我们的存在至关重要,我们会采取一切措施以确保这些水库顺利建成,确保整个埃塞俄比亚能用上电,Period。

We will not give up

Con...That life style might have some value to western anthropologists, brat tourists, and wicked racists who feel better about themselves by comparing their 'civilized' life style to ours, but for us it is a life style we have been struggling to get out from. There are also those who want to keep Ethiopia weak and backward since they see the development of Ethiopia as a threat to their national interest, and they have been working tirelessly to undermine the peace and progress of our country. We see all this as road bumps which might be able to slow our progress, nevertheless this will not stop us and we will defeat our enemies no matter in what shape or color they come; in this case our very existence is at stake, and we will do whatever necessary to make sure that these dams are built and the whole Ethiopia is electrified, Period.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

生存才是真理

我很小就知道埃塞俄比亚这个国家,因为我小时候很瘦很瘦,邻居都开玩笑叫我埃塞俄比亚难民。所以我很小就知道这个国家很穷,国民吃不饱饭。

如果我是这个国家的国民,我才不管一百年后生态是不是被破坏的一塌糊涂,下游人民的生活是不是依然水深火烈。我只希望自己的国家变得富有,强大,人们不再挨饿,不受疾病的困扰,不受列强的欺负。

在解决这些基本生存问题之前,跟他们谈什么“人权”甚至“鱼权”、“河流权”、“森林权”都是假道义。

Life is tough

I have known about Ethiopia since I was a child because I was very thin, and my neighbour used to make fun of me and call me "Ethiopian refugee". That's why I know Ethiopia is a very poor country and its citizens don't have enough to eat.

If I were from that country,I would not care if the ecology would be completely disrupted in a hundred years, or if the people living in the downstream had a tough life. I would just hope for my country to change and become rich, big and powerful, for people to stop suffering from hunger, stop worrying about diseases and the great powers' browbeats.

Talking about human right, fish rights, river rights and forest rights before even solving their basic living problems is a false morality.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

事实

8号评论
希望上帝保佑你。要持续不断地告诉人们真相。对于那些被新殖民主义机构欺骗的人来说,你就是明灯。

the truth

comment#8
God bless you again and again .keep inform the people who do not know the truth.you are the light, for those people who deceived by neo colonization agents.