文章 Articles

中国企业绿色进化缺乏动力

许多人都为《环境信息公开办法》的推行喝彩,将其视为中国环保的转折点。但是,两年后,此法却几乎被人遗忘,霍伟亚如是说。

Article image

去年5月,“中外对话”组织过一次访谈,探讨中国执行《环境信息公开办法(试行)》(下称《办法》)一周年来的得失。民间环保组织“公众与环境研究中心”主任马军当时说:“《办法》实施后遇到的最大问题,是企业在环境信息公开上几乎无所作为。”

中国企业家不爱公开环境信息,但在环保宣传上却很积极。他们在公开活动中从不质疑保护环境的必要性,也不否认企业的社会责任。

“中国绿色公司年会” (下称“年会”)是这些企业家成立的环保讨论平台。从2008年首届年会开始,企业家们不停地向公众传递他们的关注重心,话题从“绿色竞争力”到“绿色变革”,再到今年第三届年会的“绿色进化”。

今年四月底发布的“中国绿色公司百强榜单” 是该平台“进化”三年的成果之一。榜单由年会主办方中国企业家俱乐部旗下的道农研究院发布,其首席专家杨鹏撰文说,该榜单是“向世界推荐在绿色转型方面最有眼光、最有责任担当和最有行动能力的绿色领袖企业。”

但发布榜单时杨鹏透露,榜单评选专家组在对近1500个企业样本进行分析时发现,中国企业还没有习惯披露数据,企业环境方面的数据非常残缺,这是做榜单最大的困难。

但企业家在表达环保热情上从不吝啬。

参加今年年会的企业家总是大谈如何从自身做起,保护环境。从事英语教育的新东方教育科技(集团)有限公司董事长俞敏洪说自己有尿频习惯,为了不浪费水资源,晚上小便时不会冲马桶,而是和第二天早晨的一起冲掉;做投资的上海复星高科技(集团)有限公司董事长郭广昌极力推荐太极拳,认为练太极拳仅需要几平米的地方,是最环保的运动方式。个别企业家也抛出极端言论。阿里巴巴集团董事局主席马云在年会前宣称,做电子商务就是为了消灭纸张;而制造空调的远大集团总裁张跃曾公开表示,他的目标是消灭空调。

2004年,100位企业家成立了民间环保组织“阿拉善SEE生态协会”,工作内容从治理沙尘暴到设立生态奖项,现在又拿出资金资助中国民间环保组织。个别企业家开始拿出资金建立非公募基金会参与环保。如“阿拉善SEE生态协会”发起者之一、地产商冯仑2008年发起的“万通公益基金会”。他模仿美国由企业家发起的公益基金会运作方式,期望万通公益基金会能独立运作,不受企业影响。

公开表达对环境问题的关注和亲自参与环境公益活动,为参与此事的中国企业家赢得了良好的公众形象。但这些行为掩盖了一个事实:企业家的环保言论或公益行为与企业本身是否绿色,不是一回事。很多事实显示,中国企业的绿色进化还停留在企业家嘴上。

2009年英国慈善团体碳披露项目(CDP)中国报告认为:“关于碳排放的数据搜集与管理,将成为中国公司低碳之路的主要障碍之一。”

CDP每年都向几千家企业申请碳信息披露。中国的咨询公司商道纵横从 2008年开始与碳披露项目(CDP)合作,向100家市值最大的中国上市公司发出碳信息披露请求。2009年仅有11家上市公司填写了问卷,18家上市 公司提供了相关信息;而2008年有反馈的企业数分别是5和20。尽管情况在好转,但比例依然很低。去年10月绿色和平中国办公室针对位列世界500强和 中国上市公司100强企业做了调查,报告显示18家公司下属的25家工厂无一在《办法》规定的时限内公布污染物排放信息。

2006 年起,“公众与环境研究中心”先后发布并持续更新中国水污染地图和中国空气污染地图,收集了2004 年来中国官方公布的各种环境信息。截至2010 年3 月,两个数据库收集的企业环境监管和处罚记录超过58000 条。“公众与环境研究中心”今年3月发布的报告《克服披露缺陷香港有责》确认,通过分析他们的污染地图汇总的数据,截至今年3 月1 日,在香港交易所上市的企业中共有175 家企业存在可公开获取的环境违规记录超过750 条。

中国企业只绿化形象不绿化核心业务,有其原因。企业知道,真变绿需要多花钱,而仅仅把形象变绿就便宜得多。所以经济学家张维迎在年会上说:“如果找不到绿色的商业模式,一切都是口号。”

改变这种状况的一种有效方法是,让企业变绿的同时有钱可赚。所以中国政府和学界将绿色发展看作解决经济增长、可持续发展的良方,正在从不同层面给予支持。这对企业来说是一根萝卜。

今年年会的绿色金融分论坛上,做投资的数位企业家信心满满地说,投资绿色有钱可赚。但如果政府不转变思维,推动绿色发展,这个萝卜就不起作用。

中外对话副总编刘鉴强的文章《中国环保的“胜利”被戳穿》说明,个别政府部门在发布环境变好的假信号,等于变相为污染企业辩护。这无疑会减慢中国企业绿色进化的步伐。

很多环保人士将企业变绿的希望寄托在《办法》上,因为它有利于公众参与,进而监督企业污染。马军在4月接受一个访谈时说:“《办法》奠定了基本环境信息公开的法规和政策基础。”但两年来,企业的信息公开乏善可陈,并没有企业真正依据《办法》披露信息。

今年《办法》两周岁时,中国媒体连庆祝它“生日”的兴致都没有,仅有“公众与环境研究中心”发布了本文提到的报告,政府方面也没有动静,《办法》似乎已被遗忘。

如果不能用萝卜诱使企业自发变绿,《办法》又失灵,公众不能给企业施加变绿的压力,中国企业的绿色进化可能只会停留在“洗绿”阶段。


霍伟亚是中外对话北京办公室副主编。

首页图片为2009年绿色公司年会的宣传海报,来自道农网

发表评论 Post a comment

评论通过管理员审核后翻译成中文或英文。 最大字符 1200。

Comments are translated into either Chinese or English after being moderated. Maximum characters 1200.

评论 comments

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

习惯

“中国企业还没有习惯披露数据”。要是披露数据是自发的话,这习惯恐怕猴年马月也养不成。要是公布数据是强制要求的,他们没公布,就不是个习惯问题,是违法了吧。怎么好像他们公布数据还是给老百姓的恩惠了,简直是本末倒置!

Habit

"Chinese companies still do not have the habit of disclosing data." If disclosing data was voluntary, I'm afraid not even god knows how long it would take for it to become a habit. If it is compulsory to publish data, and they don't publish it, then it is not a matter of habit, it is breaking the law. How is it that they make it seem like they are doing a favour for the people by publishing data, its reasoning is simply upside down!

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

环保宣传仍需加强

从企业家对的环保行为可以看到,他们对于环保的认识还处于比较低的层面。

Still need to improve environmental awareness

We can see from the environmental behaviour of entrepreneurs that their understanding of environmental protection is still low.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

自我宣传大于环保宣传

我上网去看了一下文章中链接的"中国企业家俱乐部",从他们的会员活动看来,除了最频繁的喝茶唠嗑(所谓论坛沙龙)以外,次主要的活动就是打高尔夫球.高尔夫球啊,这项运动多么的不环保,中外对话之前的一篇文章就已经提到过了.http://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/ch/3631-All-the-tees-in-China

Self-promotion is greater than Environmental awareness

I went online to look at the "China Entrepreneur Club" link in the article, and from their member activities, it looks like other than their frequent tea drinking and chats (so-called salon discussions), the main activity is playing golf. Golf is such a non-environmentally friendly activity. A previous China Dialogue article has already mentioned this. http://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/ch/3631-All-the-tees-in-China

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

老百姓能减多少碳?

事实就是如此,环保本身就无望,政府企业都不在乎,每天号召百姓节能环保?低碳更是从何谈起呢???

How much carbon can people reduce?

That is the truth, environmental protection has no hope in itself and governmental enterprises don't care. All they do is tell people everyday that they should save energy and protect the environment. And where to begin with low carbon???

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

回复评论3

部分万科小区真的做了几年垃圾分类减量;王石等真的从珠穆朗玛捡回了不不少的垃圾,其中废氧气瓶100多个,世博的中国馆要拿去展览,万科馆就展示不了了

来自新浪微博

Re: conment 3

Part of Vanke Estate did take waste recycle and reduction for several years, and Wang Shi did Picking up litter too from Chomolungma, including over one hundred deserted oxygen cylinders, which were wanted by the World Expo China Pavilion and then weren't exhibited in Vanke Pavilion.

from sina miniblog

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

我从不看好这个《办法》

我比较看重的是中国的《环境评价法》和《政府信息公开条例》。

依照上述法律,中国上层两级政府环保部门公布了准入市场的企业建设名录;依照上述条例,上层国土资源部门应公布准许征地的建设项目名录。

这样,除上述两种准入之外开工的建设项目属于违规违法。

这样,政府、企业和公众监督的环境责任分工明确,这才是依法环保的根本之道。

陈继群
曾经草原网站
www.cy.ngo.cn

I'm Not Optimistic About These "Measures"

I think relatively highly of China's "Environmental Assessment Act" and the "Ordinance on Governmental Information Disclosure".
According to the act, the two upper levels of the Ministry of Environmental Protection must publish the records of enterprises permitted to enter the market. And according to the ordinance, the upper levels of the Ministry of Natural Resources must publish the records of expropriated lands for construction projects.
This is to say that besides the two kinds of entries mentioned above, initiating any other kind of construction project is illegal.
In this way, responsibility for the environment may be clearly divided among the government, business and the public. This is the method of environmental protection in keeping with the laws.
Chen Jiqun
Echoing Steppe
www.cy.ngo.cn
Comment translated by Clay Baylor

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

寻找绿色动力需要时间

我认为企业家不需要借此宣传自己,他们在寻找道路,需要全社会的支持,也需要大家一起寻找道路。比如垃圾分类,可以从自身做起!节能环保在每一天的生活中!

finding green power takes time

I don't think enterprisers really need this kind of publicity. They are looking for a way forward, and that process needs help and support from everyone in society. Take sorting household waste for example. Everyone can start doing that themselves. Save energy and protect the environment in daily life!

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

回复7:依然可疑

企业家是在真诚地寻找道路,还是仅仅借此宣传自己,很难判断。但现实情况是,一些企业家一边高调讨论环保,一边污染环境。我们可能觉得虽然他们意识到了环境问题,但转变需要时间。可是他们面对自己污染的态度太让人质疑了。

Re: comment 7 still questionable

It's hard to judge whether entrepreneurs are sincerely trying to find solutions or just promoting themselves. But the current situation is, some entrepreneurs are having high-profile environmental protection discussions, while polluting the environment. We can feel that although they are aware of the environmental issues, but making changes takes time. But the attitude they have towards their own pollution is very questionable.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

是否真诚很重要

是否真诚很重要,这决定了出发点。诚然,企业家因其巨大的成功而承担了更多的社会责任,但相信其中的一部分,甚至大部分真诚的看到可持续绿色发展是正确的长远的并非为了宣传自己,是应该被人相信和尊重的,如果社会没有一点点相互的信任度,是否也是一种倒退?每个人都有为节能环保做贡献的义务,你是否承担了自己应做的那一份?如果自己做好了,再来评价别人不迟,如果自己真正意识到了地球所遭遇的危害,再来看到一部分企业家,就会相信他们的真心和真诚了。改变需要时间,需要寻找正确的实践方法,你自己的生活也一样,不是普通人就理所应当的不需要为可持续做贡献,每个个体都应当承担自己的义务!如果你连意识都没意识到,甚至没有说更没有做,那你就更没资格质疑别人的真诚!

Whether it is in good faith or not is important

Whether it is in good faith or not is important, this determines the starting point. Indeed, because of their great success, entrepreneurs bear even more social responsibility, but I believe that a part of, or even most of them who honestly see sustainable green development as the right long-term goal is not promoting themselves, it should be believed and respected by people and if society doesn't have even a little bit of trust, then isn't it going backwards? Each person has the obligation to contribute to saving energy, are you taking responsibility for what you should be? If you have done well, it's not too late to evaluate other people, if you are really conscious of the damage the earth has suffered, and then look at the actions of some of the entrepreneurs, you will believe that they are genuine and sincere. Change requires time, and needs to find the right ways, your life is the same, ordinary people should not take for granted that they do not need to contribute to sustainability, each individual should undertake their obligations! If you are not even aware of it, not spoken about it or done anything, then you don't have the right to criticise the good faith of others.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

扭转人类的劣根性需要全社会的努力

我们都很清楚应该做什么,不应该做什么,而我们每个人都很难做到,明知该做的不做,不该做的还在做,人类的劣根性或说贪欲,这就是地球走向灭亡、人类走向灭亡的原因,一部分企业家在探寻道路,也许做得不够,但他们意识到说出来已然是一种进步,何况在努力寻找企业里的解决之道,而每个个体是否更需要这样?少用一次性筷子、少开空调、少用餐巾纸、少换一次手机或电脑、多步行、开始尝试垃圾分类、接洗衣机的水冲厕所……你做到了吗?你意识到了吗?人类在慨叹社会退步的时候往往忘记了自己的责任。自己不负责,还质疑别人的负责之心,或许比不质疑要好,但不如努力行动更好!

The efforts of the whole society are needed to reverse the evils of humans

We all know very clearly what we should and should not do, yet it is very hard for each of us to do. We don't do what we know we should do, and do what we shouldn't do. The inherent flaws and greed of humans is the reason that earth and humankind are doomed for destruction. Some entrepreneurs explore the pathways and perhaps that is not enough, but they are aware that talking about it is a kind of progress, much less make an effort to find solutions within the company, and should each individual do the same? Use disposable chopsticks less, turn on the air conditioning less, use less napkins, change mobiles or computers less, walk more, try to separate your rubbish, use the water from the washer to flush the toilet...can you do it? Are you aware now? When humans lament about the deterioration of society, they always forget their own responsibilities. They do not take responsibility and question the responisibilities of others, or maybe it is better than not questioning, but it'd be better to take action!