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你为什么吃素?

选择素食餐厅的中国消费者日渐增多,周维分析了其中的原因,指出除了食物的味道、营养和安全性的吸引力以外,人们道德与信仰的追求,社会文化和潮流都在其中发挥了推动作用。

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盘子里的素烤肉已经吃光了,来收盘子的服务生指了指剩下的香菜对我说:“香菜好吃又营养,也吃掉吧!‘粒粒皆辛苦’啊!”我不好意思地依言吃光了香菜。这位服务生是餐馆的志愿者。这里是位于建外SOHO的维根蔬食小屋,一家面积不大,环境优雅的素食餐馆。餐馆里摆着供食客借阅的环保、健康的图书,以及可出售的有机食品。在书架上,我还发现了《中外对话》杂志。在附近工作的未婚夫感叹道:“在建外SOHO能有这样一个清幽的文化之地,真是件令人意外的事。”

环境清幽,有文化气息,而且菜品好吃。这差不多是素食餐厅普遍的特点。位于北三环的“香阳小筑”素食餐厅店主刘月凡女士说:“我做菜品,最看重的就是好吃。”刘女士说,说到吃素,总会有人误解,觉得素食不好吃,没有营养,其实不然,素食可以做得很好吃又有营养,只是主流的餐饮业不往这方面下功夫。

好吃并不意味着油大味重。精于美食烹饪的素食者高岩女士向我们侃侃道来各种蔬菜的美妙滋味与做法,她说,做菜应该少油少盐,做出菜本来的滋味来。清淡,不是寡淡,其中自有真味。

维根小屋的老板余力是一位茹素20年的蔬食营养师,他坚持强调他们倡导的不是“素食”,而是“蔬食”,因为“素食”的概念太模糊。“蔬食”明确排除了蛋、奶类食物,仅使用植物性食材。尽管这样,他介绍,“蔬食”照样可以做出美味的中餐和味道纯正的西餐。而对于食物的营养,余力自然比谁都自信。

香阳小筑在北京已经开业7年了,7年来,他们的顾客在不断增加。维根小屋的余力介绍,近些年,人们的素食观念在明显提高。不仅顾客增加了,素食餐馆也增加了,仅北京地区从7-10年前屈指可数,到现在的上百家。据说南方的素食行业更火热。香阳小筑店主刘月凡介绍,来吃饭的顾客中,只有10%素食者,90%是非素食者,对于非素食者来说,这里吸引他们的原因有许多,美味、安全、健康、环保,以及文化氛围。

我注意到餐厅里萦绕的藏香味道,门廊上挂着展示出售的字画,高大的书架上摆满佛教和健康、素食的书籍,餐厅的一角是庄严的佛龛。这里与其说是一个餐馆,不如说是一个文化会馆。很多人就是从这里开始认识佛教,走进佛教的。像香阳小筑这样有佛教氛围的素食餐厅在中国素食餐饮中占有相当的比重,仅北京地区就有很多由居士甚至僧人开的素食餐馆。从很大意义上讲,文化传播与文化交流是大多数素食餐馆经营的重要意义。香阳小筑的刘月凡说:做开心的事,开心地挣钱,用开心的方式花挣来的钱,是她开餐馆的目的。

维根小屋则代表了另一个风格的素食餐馆。到维根小屋吃饭的顾客中,有70%是女性,30-40%是外国人,30-40%为严格素食者。维根小屋倡导健康与有机,他们力争选用有机、非转基因食材,吸引了许多关注食品安全与健康的顾客。谈到未来的打算,余力先生说,他的目标是发展500个会员,建立蔬食俱乐部,提供有机食物的团体订购活动,为每一位会员制定健康的蔬食饮食计划。

从价位上看,素食餐饮普遍处在中高档水平。他们没有鲍鱼海参,没有高档酒水,但精致可口的菜品、高成本的有机食材、文化氛围,都是素食餐厅的价值亮点。而吃素食,已成为许多中国人的时尚追求。

然而素食其实与以小农生产为根基的中国文化紧紧相连。2011年新年之际,《三联生活周刊》以“盛世之素”为题,作为“年夜饭”专刊。全刊对中国传统素食食材:笋、菌、蔬、谷、薯、豆腐,从生长、生产,到其美味的做法,历史、文化,做了详尽的介绍。杂志开篇写道:“对于生在拥有最悠久农业文明的国度的中国人来说,对植物性食物的偏爱,几乎根植于每一个人的灵魂中,已属本能。”

“盛世之素”对当代中国素食人群增加的现象做出了这样的解释:“中国素食文化最兴盛之时,皆在盛世,而这并非巧合……人们在追求一种更为精致、优美的生活方式——素食,是其中的一种。”

然而,有更多的人吃素是出于一种无奈的考虑:食品安全。肉食中的毒素已经越来越超乎人们的想象,素食也许是更安全的一种选择。余力先生认为,即使吃有农药、化肥的蔬菜,也比吃肉食更安全,更健康。近些年,畜产品工厂化养殖正在渐渐代替小农经济的分散养殖,肉类产量和经济效益提高了,食品安全问题也开始此消彼长,许多问题甚至长期无法解决。随着各种饲料添加剂、激素、加工污染的曝光,越来越多的城市人选择了远离肉食。如果说素食餐厅是大多数人们闲暇聚会、调剂胃口的选择,那么,家庭素食则是许多人生活的常态。

除了食品安全的考虑,也有一些人出于道义、信仰、文化的动机选择素食。

在民间组织做乡土文化教育的景檬给我讲了她吃素的经历。有一次她妈妈病了,她替妈妈去菜市场买鱼,她看到小贩把一条活鱼摔在砧板上麻利地开膛刮鳞。从此就尽量不接触肉食了。她说,以前接触到的肉食都是家人做好的,那是第一次看到一个鲜活的生命如何迅速地成为袋子里的食物,觉得肉食原来如此血腥。吃素之后,她受到了家人的重重阻挠,她妈妈觉得不吃肉是毛病,因此故意做很多肉给她。她倒顺其自然,能够“淡吃肉边菜”,实在没有菜也会接受肉食。现在,家人终于理解她了。

一直在学习和实践中国传统文化的赵崑告诉我,在学习中医和传统文化过程中,慢慢觉得吃素健康清静,也就越来越远离肉食了。现代人过于追求食物的美味,她认为这是不好的,口腹之欲往往带来更多不必要的困惑和烦恼,因此有时候她会刻意节制自己的欲望,培养自己清静自省的状态,她觉得这是对内心的一种修行。

清代李渔在《闲情偶记》中所说的“疏远肥腻,食蔬蕨而甘之” ,已经不再是简单的饮馔之道,而是人与自然如何和谐永续共处的思考。

余力先生告诉中外对话,他是在2006年看到联合国粮农组织的《牲畜养殖的大阴影-环境问题和对策》报告之后,决定开蔬食餐馆的。他说,这些年来,他越来越意识到蔬食是解决地球上粮食问题、环境问题、经济问题、温室气体问题等许多问题的根本。相对来说,选择动物性食物是一种资源消耗的饮食方式,世界粮食有36%用于动物饲料,只有47%用于人类饮食。森林的砍伐、资源的消耗与掠夺、贫穷、粮食危机无一不与饮食方式相关联。他希望以他的餐厅来影响更多的人接受蔬食理念。他说,他看到这些年人们的观念的确在提高。

余力强调,不要把素食者当做怪物,素食不是绝对的,它应是一种带有包容性的食物选择趋向。人们可以根据自己的意愿减少肉食的摄入量。如果人们越来越多地选择了素食,我们的环境就有希望越来越好。

 

周维,中外对话北京办公室助理编辑

图片来自周维

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iseastars

正在上升

2008我第一次到中国,这结束了我将近8年的素食生活,着实悲伤。汶川地震后我在四川农村工作,那时很难继续不吃肉的生活,几乎每道菜到会有猪肉或猪油。我不想辜负农民们的一番热情款待,也不能对当地人提供给我的肉食视而不见。用餐时间对于建立友谊和亲密的关系很重要,所以我不想显得格格不入。那时,我正在写一篇关于羌族和2008地震后的影响的文章。http://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/china/aftermath

但不论如何,现在成都有3到4个素食餐馆,我经常带着一大帮朋友光顾,尽管菜价较一般的四川菜要贵一些。我经常点素面和蛋炒饭,虽然这些只是一小步,但不可能要求中国一夜之间都吃素。我认为仅仅曝光残杀动物的残忍还不够,还应曝光食肉对外部环境的影响和肉类产业的补贴。每个人都需要从生态环境中吸取更深刻的教训!

on the rise

Sadly it was my first trip to China in 2008 that put in an end to a nearly 8 year stint of Vegetarianism. I was working in rural Sichuan after the quake and it would have been very difficult to remain meat-free a) pork or pork grease was present in nearly every dish b) I didn't want to distance myself from rural hospitality and "turn my nose" at what locals were offering me. Mealtimes are very important for establishing friendship and rapport, so I didn't want to alienate myself during the time I was working on an article on the Qiang indigenous group and the impacts of the 2008 earthquake:
http://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/china/aftermath

Anyhow, there are now 3-4 Vegetarian restaurants in Chengdu, in which I like to dine at with a large groups of friends since the prices are higher than standard Sichuan cuisine. I often opt for meat free noodles and pick egg fried rice over pork which are small steps, but demanding a meat-free China is not going to come overnight. I think the environmental externalities and subsidies of the meat industry need to be exposed more so than just animal cruelty.Everyone needs a stronger lesson in ecology!

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adl

不是只能吃植物

感谢周维写的这篇文章。关于你对素食主义的定义(素食主义只吃植物,完全不吃鸡蛋和奶制品)我有一点小小的意见。素食主义不吃肉类产品,但能吃的也不仅仅只有植物吧。你再想想诸如真菌、藻类、细菌还有矿物质。盐、蘑菇、海藻(寿司里用的海苔)、琼脂(蛋糕和果胶中用的)以及酵母(啤酒和发酵面包里用的),这些都是很有用的作料,但既不属于动物也不属于植物。如果严格地只吃植物,那会使人缺乏维生素b12——一种存在于肉类产品中的非常重要的营养物质,也可以直接用细菌制造出来。当然,素食主义可以不仅适用于食物,也可以延伸到其他消费品,比如塑料之类的矿产品(比如聚酯面料)。我的意思是什么呢?就是说世界万物,并非只有动物和植物,素食者吃什么用什么,这是一个极其复杂的问题。

More than plants

Thanks Zhou Wei for the article. A minor comment on your definition of veganism ("Using only plants, veganism explicitly rules out eggs and dairy products"). Veganism avoids animal products, but this leaves more than just plants if you also think of fungi, algae, bacteria and minerals. Salt, mushrooms, seaweed (nori paper for sushi), agar (in cakes and jellies) and yeast (in beer or leavened bread) are all useful ingredients that are neither animal nor plant. A strictly plant-only diet would lack vitamin B12 - an essential nutrient naturally occurring in many animal products that can also be manufactured directly from bacteria. Of course, veganism can apply beyond food to other consumables too, where minerals like plastics take on even more roles (e.g. polyester fabric). What's my point? Well, there's more to the world than just plants and animals, and vegan consumption can be surprisingly complicated.

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meter

有机植物中就有B12哦

有机植物性食品比用化肥种植的非有机食品含有的B12多。

植物根系能吸收土壤微生物产生的特定维生素,因此,在富含微生植物群和动物群的天然土壤中生长的植物含有更多营养素。

纯素食者和其他人都应该能从有机食品中获得B12
莫扎法博士想调查以有机物质(如牛粪)为肥料种植出的植物是否比普通方式种植出的植物含有更高的B12水平。他参考了1926年以来所有相关的大量研究。最后,他发现:在有机物质浇灌的土壤中种植出的植物的维生素B含量要比以化肥为肥料种植出的植物高,而且,有机植物产品能更好地支持实验动物的生长。莫扎法认为可能植物根系能吸收土壤微生物产生的B12。

If it contains organic plants, it certainly contains B12

Foodstuffs which contain organic plants contain more B12 than non- organic foods grown using chemical fertilizer.

The roots of plants draw specific nutrients from the soil, and as a result, plants which grow in soil rich in microbes and animals contain more nutrients.

Vegans and others should be able to get B12 from organic foods. Dr Mozaffar wished to investigate whether plants grown using organic fertilizer (such as cow dung) contianed hihger levels of B12 than those grown using conventional methods. He referred to all relevant large- scale research carried out since 1926. Eventually, he discovered that the vitamin B content of plants grown in irrigated soil fertilized using organic methods was higher than that of plants grown in chemically- fertilized soil. Furthermore, organic products were better able to support the actual growth of livestock. Dr Mozaffar believes that the roots of plants absorb the B12 produced by microbes in the soil.

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meter

素食给了我最好的礼物

本人从小就喜欢蔬菜而非肉食,但是父母与邻居们在社会环境的影响下,以能吃到更多的肉食为荣,于是小时候刚开始是被强迫肉食,到后来是身体也适应了肉食生活,,直到近10年来多次肉食中毒才于三年前开始素食,素食让我不药而愈了许多疾病,而且让舌头更敏感地觉知任何一种蔬食的美味,实在太享受了,而且再也没有口臭、便秘的烦恼!非常感谢自己选择了素食生活哦!

vegetarian diet gives me the best presents

I started to enjoy vegetables rather than meat at an early age. However, influenced by the social environment, my parents and neighbours took pride in having more meat. So I used to be forced to eat meat when I was a little child, and later I came to terms with a life of meat. It wasn't until three years ago, after I had suffered meat-triggered intoxication several times, that I started to lead a vegetarian life. A vegetable diet has not only helped me cure many diseases but has also made my tongue more sensitive to the taste of vegetables of any kind. What a pleasure!Moreover, no ozostomia or constipation ever troubled me. Many thanks to myself for choosing a vegetarian life.

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森林789

真的环保

一直认为伦敦是素食者的天堂。几乎每家荤餐馆都给客人提供素食选择。一般菜单上都会有一个绿色的小"v"字提示“vegetarian or vegan friendly”,这已经是大多英国人习惯看到的标记了。有些素食餐点还是荤餐厅的主打菜,吸引大量顾客慕名而来。然而在加州的时候发现素食已经开始往有机,纯素(无蛋奶制品)和生机饮食的方向发展, 并且还出现了很多日式,泰式,意大利式餐厅以及有机纯素生食冰激凌店等等。原来无论哪国菜式都可以做出地道的甚至更可口的素食版本。上海和北京更不用说,算得上是全球素食美味和健康理念发展最快的城市之一了。

最近这几年,身边的人几乎都能够接受应该尽量少吃肉,多吃蔬菜水果的观念。工作生活中能够带朋友和家人去尝试各种即健康美味,又充满创意的素食是一大乐趣,因为我知道他们尝试到的不仅仅是美味还有健康,环保和仁慈的生活理念!

Genuine care for the environment

I always think of London as a paradise for vegetarians. Nearly every restaurant has vegetarian options. They are usually marked with a small "v" in green on the menus, indicating "vegetarian or vegan friendly". It is regarded as normal practice by many Brits. Some of the vegetarian dishes are also recommended picks which diners come in for. While being in California, I discovered there is also a trend for organic and vegan as well as raw food diets, accompanied by many Japanese, Thai, Italian, and organic vegan raw food restaurants and ice-cream shops. It turns out cuisines from any nation can be interpreted authentically into a tasty vegetarian version. Cities such as Shanghai and Beijing are also among the metropolises steering the concept of tasty and healthy vegetarian food.

In recent years, nearly everyone in my social circle begin to embrace the idea of having less meat and more vegetables and fruits. It is a great pleasure to share all types of healthy, delicious and also creative vegetarian foods with friends and family in my work and life. I know what they are trying is not only great taste, but also a lifestyle which is healthier, more environmentally friendly and caring.

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adl

摄取足量的b12

我想对b12作进一步的评论,因为这是一个对素食者来说非常重要的健康问题。b12缺乏是一种严重的状态,对孕妇尤其如此。尽管在某些情况下植物中含有一定量的b12,但最重要的问题是在膳食中是否能摄入足量的b12。一个简单的验血就可以验证对一个人来说是不是这样的情况。许多权威建议素食者们要么一直食用填入b12的食物,要么每天或每周补充b12.更多的信息见http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_B12

getting enough B12

A further comment on B12, as it's an important health issue for vegetarians/vegans. B12-deficiency is a serious condition especially for pregnant women. While plants may contain some B12 in certain circumstances, the most important question is whether a person gets enough dietary intake. A simple blood test can establish whether this is the case for a given individual. Many authorities recommend that vegans either consistently eat foods fortified with B12 or take a daily or weekly B12 supplement. More info here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_B12