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空气质量凸显环保部门的官僚化

中国空气质量问题所引起的公众危机,证实了曾经强有力的环保部门已变得乏力不振,软弱无能,作风官僚。楚龙报道。

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2011年入秋以来,全国多个城市接连发生“灰霾”,PM2.5一词浮出水面,引起公众的普遍关注。在这场大城市的空气问题成为大家共同抨击的议题的同时,负有监管责任的环保部门表现很“官僚”,反应慢了半拍。以北京为主要代表的一些城市因为发布的空气质量报告与个人的现实感知差异太大,形成了“两张皮”。同时,一些非官方的空气质量监测数据开始通过现代传播技术得以迅速散布。这一抛弃政府监测数据的做法,从侧面表达了对环保部门的强烈不满。

不过,让人感到欣慰的是,先有温家宝总理强调环境监测结果要与人民切实感受更加接近,后有李克强副总理要求抓紧做好PM2.5监测的准备。之后,我们终于看到了监管部门姗姗来迟的决定:在第七次全国环境保护工作大会上,环保部部长周生贤公布了PM2.5和臭氧监测详细时间表。2012年,中国将先在京津冀、长三角、珠三角等重点区域以及直辖市和省会城市开展PM2.5和臭氧监测。2016年,在全国完成PM2.5的监测工作。

环保部环境监测司副司长朱建平在接受媒体采访时表示,从技术上说,没什么难度,PM2.5是PM10里的一部分,监测原理和PM10没差别。而且监测点位也是在测PM10的点位上同时开展,不需要重新布点,只要在原来测PM10的点上再增加一套监测PM2.5的设备即可。让公众无法理解的是,既然从技术上讲没什么难度,那么此前为何面对公众的呼声迟迟不作反应?为何还要分布走、一直拖到2016年才实现全国监测?此外,至今为止,我们还未看到环保部门采取有效的措施去遏制空气质量进一步恶化。在一定程度上,空气污染已成为北京肺癌病例徒增的诱因之一。如果按照环保部的时间表,那时哪还来得及去治理呢?

在环保监管部门反应迟滞的情况下,包括达尔问求知社在内的一些国内民间环保组织开展了民间监测空气行动。《南方都市报》刊文认为,表面来看,民间的监测行动在科学性上面显然与政府机构无法相提并论,例如一台官方监测仪器的价格是70万,而民间的一台只有2.5万。但是,民间监测力量的集聚形式与动力是不容轻视的,一旦政府在空气监测问题上依旧怠慢,这势必将激起民间更为广泛的质疑之声和更为强烈的挑战。正是在这一层意义上,环保部门必须摘下傲慢的面具,倾听民意,在与民间良好互动的基础上不断提升公共服务的水准。

环保总局升格为环保部迄今已经有3年多的时间了,而中国的环境污染近几年反而有恶化趋势。目前中国十分之一土壤遭受重金属污染,26%的环保重点城市空气质量超标,五分之一的水质为劣V类,许多重要的环境指标都比2008年前更加恶化。按环保部官员的说法:“虽然局部有所改善,但环境总体恶化的趋势仍然没有得到遏止。”然而,环保部门的监管力度和效果却在减弱。2011年云南曲靖陆良化工企业非法倾倒5000吨铬废渣造成严重污染,被环保部门勒令停工,但不久后该企业即违反政令公然复产。而环保部门的惩罚措施却难以到位,对该企业毫无办法。

环保部门演变成今天之现状,让人深感惋惜。因为,这个部门曾经是最有冲劲、最富创新精神、最得公众信任的部门之一。从一次次的“环保风暴”到“区域限批”,环保总局将政策用到了尽头,终于引起了全国对于污染问题的重视。虽然这些“风暴”声势很大,但却都未能变成常规性制度固定下来。当时也有许多专家和官员强调,环境保护靠“风暴”不行,要靠加强环境监督管理的法治化、科学化、规范化云云。但如今的情况是:不仅制度未能彻底贯彻落实,连“风暴”都没有了,结果只能是环境污染进一步恶化。

近年来,利益集团之间的博弈日趋明显。作为重要利益集团的大型企业和地方政府追求经济利益的欲望也更加强烈。而这些经济利益主体无一不掌握了巨大的政经权力,甚至超越于环保部门所能管辖和监督的范围之外。例如中石油中海油、中石化、紫金矿业等几次污染事件,环保部事先既无法参与项目决策、过程中无法进行有力的监督,事后也无法对此实行处罚,反而是环保官员为此类污染后果辞了职。在中国,正是这样的强大利益集团才有资格成为污染的主体。

有人说,利益集团当道,环保部门势单力薄,难以有所作为。我不同意这个说法。利益集团形成是个现实,地方政府强大也是现实,可中央监管部门的职责,难道不正是要突破这些困难、落实科学发展观的各项政策吗?正如当前中央进行房价调控,不正是在房地产利益集团和地方政府的重围中艰难突破的吗?是否有所作为,不取决于现实有多难,而是取决于有没有“苟利国家生死以,岂因祸福避趋之”的决心与担当。

如果一个部门的进取心、责任感只能在这个部门弱小、不那么官僚化的阶段发生,那么我强烈呼吁取消环保部,重新恢复其环保总局的地位。当然,这只是玩笑罢了。中国社会利益集团的坐大和环保部门调节机制的无力,实际上凸显了中国目前的政治格局下环保动力的缺乏。也是在此种利益格局下,最近传来消息,长江上最后一个自然生态保护区终于被“调整”了——在这块土地上,经济利益至上所推动的环境破坏似乎已经无法阻挡了,而整个长江水系的生态恶化和生物多样性的毁坏看起来已是指日可待。

而可能阻止或减缓这一切发生的,是重新认识和激发我们国家的环保社会动力。在历史上,任何一个现代化国家都曾经历过工业化进程中的环境污染问题,而环境污染的利益相关方的参与也被证明是解决这些问题的关键所在。遭受污染损害的中国的公众已经意识到了这个问题并开始采取行动,对利益集团的污染举措进行反制,如厦门PX事件大连石化项目事件等。无论从环境保护、还是改善中国社会利益结构的角度来看,这都应被视为一个好消息:惟有人民大众作为利益相关方加入利益博弈,制约地方政府和大企业等利益集团的污染行为,而不是被动地等待环保部门的作为,中国的环境保护和社会稳定才有出路,科学发展观的各项政策才能真正落实。

碧水蓝天不是等出来的,而是干出来的。在利益集团绝不会凭空消失的格局下,环保部门敢不敢干、能不能干,考验着环保部门究竟是科学发展观的排头兵,还是叠床架屋的官僚机构。

楚龙 广州高校教授

图片来源:dtraleigh

 

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weparham

中国南方空气和水体的潜在污染物载体:关于(PM-2.5)多水高岭土的研究

过去几年,纳米技术研究者揭示了一个事实,就是粘土矿物多水高岭土拥有中空、管状的结构,该结构会携带并缓慢释放诸如农药、除草剂和除菌剂的物质。目前该领域的研究还在进行,包括其商业应用的研究,涉及多水高岭土的非同寻常的性能和纳米技术(参考美国政府的许可证明)。

多水高岭土是华南岩石风化的产物,由于它能捕获这些农药中的部分化学物质然后将它们缓慢地释放掉,这就意味着现在该地风和水对高岭土的侵蚀会让有害的农药化学物质更容易流动到能被人类摄入和吸入的地方。水的侵蚀使含有化学物质的高岭土进入地表水源,化学物质在那里缓慢地释放。香港饮用过滤水源已知含有高岭土(Parham,1978),而高岭土里是否含农药化学物质就不得而知了。

华南大部分地方的森林很久前就遭到了砍伐,水土流失严重(Parham et al., 1993)。另外,大规模的地壳运动伴随城市化也增加了高岭土成为主要空气污染物飞可能性。所以,在六个月的干燥季风季节里如果含化学物质的高岭土被风吹起,它就会被人吸入体内并在人体能释放化学物质。高岭土和欧胡岛、夏威夷次地表腐泥岩里的农药残余关系密切,这表明农药可能留存于高岭土孔隙里(Miller et al., 1988)。另外,利沃夫等(Lvov et al., 2008)已经表明杀菌剂可以留存在高岭土的孔隙里,之后被释放出来。

关于华南空气里是否含有管状高岭土的研究看起来合情合理。这样的研究也许也会阐明华南留存在高岭土孔隙里的、对人类健康不利的农药化学物质的命运。

参考资料:
US government licenses halloysite-related patents to applied materials, (accessed 1/6/11), http://www.patents.com/patentscommunity/blogs/KKyrylyuk/my-blog/225/us-government-licenses-halloysite-related-patents-to-applied-minerals

Lvov, Y. et al., 2008, Halloysite clay nanotubes for controlled release of protective agents, (accessed 1/6/11), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19206476

Miller, M.E. et al., 1988, Hydrogeologic characteristics of subsoil and saprolite and their relation to contaminant transport central Oahu, Hawaii, Water Resources Res. Ctr. No. 178, 76 p.

Parham, W.E., 1978, (Abst.) Tubular halloysite in filtered water of Hong Kong, 15th Annual Mtg. Clay Minerals Society

Parham, W.E., Durana, P.J., and Hess, A.L. (eds.), Improving degraded lands: promising experiences from South China, Bishop Mus. Bull. in Botany 3, Bishop Museum Press, 1993, 241

A potential pollutant carrier in South China's air and water: a suggested (PM-2.5) halloysite study

Nanotechnology researchers in the past few years have exploited the fact that the clay mineral halloysite with its hollow, tube-like structure, might be used to carry and slowly release such substance as agricultural pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides. Research continues in this field as well as in many other potential commercial uses involving halloysite’s unusual properties and nanotechnology (see US government licenses).

Because halloysite, a common weathering product of South China’s rocks, is able to entrap some of these agricultural chemicals and then release them slowly suggests that erosion of halloysite by wind and water from this region’s land currently may be facilitating the unwanted movement of agricultural chemicals to where they could be ingested or inhaled by humans. Water erosion may carry chemically-charged halloysite into surficial water supplies where the chemicals would be released slowly. Filtered water supplies used for human consumption in Hong Kong already are known to carry halloysite (Parham, 1978) but it is not known whether or not the halloysite is carrying agricultural chemicals.

Large parts of South China long ago were deforested and still are subject to heavy erosion (Parham et al., 1993). In addition, large-scale earth movements associated with urbanization increases the likelihood that halloysite may be a significant air contaminant as well. Thus, if any chemically-charged halloysite is transported by wind erosion during the six month, monsoon dry-season it could be inhaled by humans with a subsequent internal chemical release. Halloysite is closely correlated with pesticide residues in the subsurface saprolite in Oahu, Hawaii, suggesting that the pesticide may be being held in within halloysite tubes (Miller et al., 1988). Further, Lvov et al. (2008) have shown that biocides can be retained within halloysite tubes and released later.

A study to determine the presence or absence of tubular halloysite in South China’s air seems reasonable. Such a study might shed light as well on the fate of any agricultural chemical carried in the halloysite tubes as related to potential adverse effects on human health in South China.

References

US government licenses halloysite-related patents to applied materials, (accessed 1/6/11), http://www.patents.com/patentscommunity/blogs/KKyrylyuk/my-blog/225/us-government-licenses-halloysite-related-patents-to-applied-minerals

Lvov, Y. et al., 2008, Halloysite clay nanotubes for controlled release of protective agents, (accessed 1/6/11), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19206476

Miller, M.E. et al., 1988, Hydrogeologic characteristics of subsoil and saprolite and their relation to contaminant transport central Oahu, Hawaii, Water Resources Res. Ctr. No. 178, 76 p.

Parham, W.E., 1978, (Abst.) Tubular halloysite in filtered water of Hong Kong, 15th Annual Mtg. Clay Minerals Society

Parham, W.E., Durana, P.J., and Hess, A.L. (eds.), Improving degraded lands: promising experiences from South China, Bishop Mus. Bull. in Botany 3, Bishop Museum Press, 1993, 241

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sqandrews

环保部傲慢的面具

你在文中写到“环保部门必须摘下傲慢的面具”。但是,在比如是否开始监测PM2.5这类问题的决策上,环保部门和周生贤拥有多大的权力,我仍然不清楚。你觉得这是环保部门应当自己做决定的事吗,或者,你觉得有必要让温家宝总理或其他政府高官参与尽力吗?实行PM2.5标准是很重要,但是自1996年以来中国的PM10标准就没有再修正过。中国每年100ug/m3的PM10标准仍然远高于世界卫生组织第一阶段目标值70ug/m3。那么在过去的15年里环保部自身有权力去降低高危险性的PM10标准吗?

MEP mask of arrogance

You write that "MEP must take off its mask of arrogance." But, I remain unclear as to how much authority MEP and Zhou Shengxian really have in making decisions such as whether to begin monitoring PM2.5. Do you think this was a decision MEP could have made by itself or was it necessary for Premier Wen Jiabao to get involved and other higher level government officials? Implementing a PM2.5 standard is important, but since 1996 the Chinese PM10 standard has not been revised. China's annual PM10 standard of 100ug/m3 is still well above the WHO interim 1 target of 70ug/m3. Would MEP have had had the authority by itself to lower the dangerously high PM10 standard in the last 15 years?