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难说再见——白鱀豚

在本网站刊发的第一篇中国环保人士撰写的专栏文章中, 汪永晨探讨了长江白鱀豚濒临灭绝的生存状况。她指出说,人类活动和污染导致了这一悲剧结果。

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白鱀豚是目前全世界四种淡水豚之一,公元前2000万年离开海洋进入长江,它只生活在中国长江的中下游。虽然它的知名度远不如大熊猫,但要论起辈份,大熊猫的生存年限在五百到六百万年,而白鱀豚在地球上则生活了两千五百万年左右。公元前200年,《尔雅》中就出现过有关白鱀豚的描述,并称它为“长江女神”。

那么,现在“长江女神”的生存状况如何呢?

2006长江淡水豚类考察”,队员由中国、美国、瑞士、日本、英国、德国六个国家的一流专家组成。历经近1个月的航行观测,12月5日,寻找白鱀豚科考行动行程过半,虽然专家们采用了最先进的观测方法,但在白鱀豚的历史分布区——从宜昌到上海1700公里的长江中下游江段,还没有发现一头白鱀豚。

科学家们相信,《尔雅》时代长江中的白鱀豚数量至少超过5000头。时光到了上个世纪八十年代,中国专家在国际会议上宣布,白鱀豚已不足300头。同年,白鱀豚被国际自然环保联盟列为世界12种最濒危的动物之一。1993年,专家再次发出告示:白鱀豚数量已不足百头。1997年到1999年农业部曾连续3年组织过对白鱀豚进行大规模的监测行动,三年找到的白鱀豚分别为13头、4头、4头。

这次全程参与考察的中科院水生所博士王克雄说,“一开始会鼓励大家说,还有重点的江段没考察,后来又说,这些重点的江段我们还会再走一次”。可是返程一个多星期以后,他也失望地说,“还是没发现”。

今天,全世界四种淡水豚中的亚马逊豚有十万头之多,恒河红河豚的数量也有2000多,且还有增加的趋势。而长江的白鱀豚种群则可能成为世界上第一个被人类消灭的鲸类动物。

近年来一直有人说,白鱀豚太老了,这个物种和恐龙一样,迟早是要灭绝的。周开亚教授不同意这个说法。他说:白鱀豚并没有老得不能生存,是因为我们人类的干扰才使它加快了种群灭绝的速度。据不完全统计,1985年前收集到的已知死亡原因的白鱀豚的标本中,由于人类活动影响导致死亡的约占90%。

“2006长江淡水豚类考察”的另一项工作是对长江水质的调查:考察结束后,国际顶级观鲸专家鲍勃对长江的水环境表示惊叹,“这样的水里已经完全不适合豚类生活了”。瑞士联邦水科学与技术研究所(EAWAG)的两名科学家负责收集长江水样和河底淤泥,化验结果将向全世界公布。在这次考察即将结束时他们对媒体说:“长江里已经没有多少浮游生物了。我曾经把一个专门打捞浮游生物的采集网放进长江里捞了10个小时,结果就捞出两只不到1厘米的宽的小虾。很难想象这样的水能养活多少鱼,没有鱼,白鱀豚就得饿死。”

中国的媒体和民间环保组织从1997年开始关注白鱀豚,在收集到的有关资料中有:在长江死亡的一头白鱀豚,它的身上有103处血淋淋的大大小小的伤口;白鳍豚标本中,有的头骨粉碎,有的被拦腰斩断;湖北洪湖燕窝实施爆破清理航道时,将一个拥有4名成员的白鱀豚家庭全部炸死,其中还有2头怀孕的雌豚。参与此次考察的队员姚至平觉得不可思议的是长江中船舶的数量之多,经过鄱阳湖的时候,他曾经数过那里的采砂船,数到1200的时候数不下去了。此外,随着长江沿江工业的迅速发展和农药的大量使用,长江水质的污染日益严重,一项研究表明,白鱀豚体内的有害物质含量比海豚要高得多。很有可能长江的自然水动力特征与自净能力已经失去。

中科院院士刘建康陈宜瑜在他们写的《关于白鱀豚保护的几点想法和建议》中提到,“长江中的人类活动包括渔业、航运、水利设施建设和环境污染等正在膨胀,这是白鱀豚种群数量下降的主要原因。

这次考察之前,科学家们估计现存的白鱀豚不到50头。国际动物学界公认,如果一个种群数量下降到50以下,就很难挽救了。而国际公认保护濒危动物的最佳手段,就是“迁地保护”,如果这一次考察发现了白鱀豚,将详细观察记录它的生活习性,并在明年春天设法捕捞,放到湖北石首的天鹅洲白鱀豚保护区,这里是长江的一段故道,一个半天然的保护区。可前提就是,找到白鱀豚。

2006年的具有国际专家参与的考察结束了,世界上还有白鱀豚吗?或许还没有人能拿出确凿的证据证明有,也没人能说没有。白鱀豚研究专家、中科院水生所的王丁教授和他的同事们相信,这种可爱的动物依然生活在我们这个世界上。

人类发明的克隆技术和试管婴儿,能用来培育白鱀豚吗?白鱀豚和白海豚有很近的血缘关系,能不能找一头中华白海豚和白鱀豚交配?王丁博士说:克隆是一种办法,但难度非常大,要有一个受体把细胞移到另一个动物身上,让它生育。白鱀豚本身非常少,要找替代的动物,可在中国没有和它血缘关系接近的,难度很大。和中华白海豚交配可能性也比较小,因为它们属于不同的科。  

长江女神,是中国人给予白鱀豚的美誉。再见白鱀豚,如果要实现这个愿望,那么我们已经挂在嘴边的“人与自然和谐相处”,就不应该只是口号。

 

汪永晨,中国中央人民广播电台记者。1996年创办“绿家园志愿者”民间环保群体,致力于为中国环境保护奔走呼号,影响巨大,1999年获中国环境最高奖“地球奖”。

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

我们为什么没有及早行动了?

在英国,有关白鱀豚的报道很多,就让我很惊讶。在它们当中这篇是最有意思之一。难道只是已无希望保护物种的时侯,我们要发表这样的报道吗?我们立即得为刚开始面临威胁的物种做地方的和国际的报道。我们是不是满意不断地看这么难过的报道呢?

Could we have acted earlier?

I have been surprised at the number of reports here in the UK about the baiji--this was one of the most interesting of them. Why do these only get published when there is little hope of saving the species? Now is the time to report, locally and internationally, on species that are just starting to face danger. Are we content to live our lives continually reading such sad stories as this one?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

非常令人伤感

当知道白鱀豚将可能只是在未来几十年内灭绝的一物种之一时,情况真的很糟糕,很令人伤感。

Deeply upsetting

It seems so much worse when you know this will likely be just one of many species to become extinct over the coming decade.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

挑选被保护的物种和被忽略保护的物种

这是一篇很好但同时又使人不安的文章。提到大熊猫的保护更使濒临灭绝物种比如说白鱀豚的问题更为严重。非常感谢全球对大熊猫的关心, 它已成为众所周知的形象。鲸类一直以来都是国际的焦点。虽然对关切白鱀豚的存亡可能是太迟了,但是人们对关心鲸类的程度却超出了其他“不是销售热点”的物种。尽管如此,这对生态系统的功能还是至关重要的。我不希望低估物种保护者所作出的努力。但是,我们对挑选“胜利者(可爱和得到保护的动物)和失败者(被忽略的物种)”的倾向却忽略了生态系统的复杂性。

Picking winners and losers

This is a very good and unsettling article. But bringing up the panda highlights a problem which goes beyond the sad extinction of the Baiji.
Thanks to global attention, the panda has become a very recognisable image. Cetaceans have also been in the international spotlight for a long time. And although it may well be too late for the Baiji, cetaceans receive more attention than less 'marketable' species, that are nonetheless, vital for a functioning ecosystem.
I do not wish to underestimate the efforts and benefits of species conservation. But our tendency to pick 'winners and losers' ignores the complexity of ecological systems.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

适者生存的典型案例?

具有讽刺意义的是,这或许是适者生存理论的一大典型例子。

但是这向我们发出了一警示信号:那就是所有的物种,不排除人类,不得不调整自身来适应恶化的环境来仅仅是维系生命。

不知道何时是人类的世界末日,但无疑坏的环境是部分导致癌症等不治之症的因素。

A typical case of "the survival of the fittest?"

Ironically, this is probably a typical case for the theory of the survival of the fittest.

But this sends out a warning signal that all species, with no exception of human beings, have to adapt themselves to the worsening enviroment to just keep alive.

Not sure when it will be the end of the world for human beiings, but no doubt bad environment contributes partyly to cancers and other incurable diseases.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

对白鳍豚考察活动,我有话要说。

我是很客观的看待这个问题,
做为一直做这方面宣传的我,
希望的是有更多的人来了解,来关注,
即使是她在这个世界消失了,
但是他不能消失在我们的记忆中,
她在我们的教训中,
长江水生生物的保护,
长江环境的保护,
不只是对白鳍豚等长江里的珍奇水生物种的生存空间的保护和治理,更是对我们人类自己的家园的保护。

看到考察39天,没发现一个头,大家都很悲伤。真正的来说,能够捕捉到活体才能做好他的拯救行动。大家想一想,当QIQI在白鳍豚馆23年的时候,专家做过的工作大家知道吗。在科学研究方面,不是说能拯救就拯救的。大熊猫可以拯救成功,但是白鳍豚有这样的幸运吗?

国家在这方面的投入,我不想说的太明确,有很多让人生气的地方,但是这里不排除国家对一个物种拯救的态度,但是我想说的,真的没有全力以赴的来拯救白鳍豚。

我需要一个有力的组织来支持我们的长江环境论坛,长江环境论坛也需要大家的帮助,长江环境论坛 http://www.cjhj.org/希望能够让大家来关注长江环境

联系电话:(86)+15900783739 阿来

Something I want to say about the baiji search expedition

I look upon this issue very optimistically, always taking on the role of someone spreading the word about this. My hope is that as more people come to understand and care, even if the baiji has disappeared from this world, still it cannot disappear in our memories, and it is in the lesson we've learned: the protection of the Yangtze's aquatic life forms and the Yangtze's ecology are not only about the protection and administration of the habitat of the baiji and other rare aquatic species in the Yangtze, but even more about the proection of mankind's own home. Considering a 39-day survey, and not finding a single baiji, everyone is very sad. Speaking frankly, if we can catch a live animal, then we can truly do a good job of saving it. Everyone should consider: when Qiqi lived in the institute for baiji for 23 years, did everyone know about the work of those experts? I don't want to say the benefits the country derives from this are very obvious, and there are a lot of aspects to it which anger people, but this does not get rid of a country's determination to save a species. What I want to say is that we really have not expended every effort to save the baiji. I need a powerful organisation to come support our conference on the ecology of the Yangtze, and the Yangtze Environment Forum also needs everyone's support. The Yangtze Environment Forum (www.cjhj.org) hopes that it can encourage everyone to pay attention to the ecology of the Yangtze. Contact telephone: (86)+15900783739

Alai

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

想说一些话

昨天晚上碰巧看中央10套的"大家谈"节目,就是采访中国白暨豚科研小组的首任组长陈女士.看完节目后,久久不能入眠,既然在上世纪八十年代已经知道白暨豚不过几百头的数量,为什么当时就没有下定决心来挽救这个物种呢?我看后很生气,甚至对那位陈组长的工作能力有怀疑,他们很早就想给淇淇找伴侣,可是后来也不成功.那时后长江里还是有几百头的数量,发展到现在已经没有了,灭亡了,可悲!我自己认为还有一点要说明的是,国家在这方面的宣传工作要是能够更充分一些或许要好很多.我是在长江边长大的,可是我一直不知道白暨豚是濒危物种!我真的是昨天从电视上才知道她已经灭亡!所以今天一早就来搜索一切有关白暨豚文章.真的有一种很难以表达的心情!
但愿在将来能够发现几头就好了!!!

程汉杰
[email protected]

Something to say

Last night i happened to watched the programme "Dajiatan" in CCTV10. The head of "Research Team of Baiji" Ms Chen was interviewed in it. I could not sleep after watching it. Why people did not make effort to safe Baiji when there were still hundreds left in the 80s last century? I was angry and doubted the Ms Chen's capability of doing this job. They wanted to find a partner for Qiqi long ago but hadn't been managed that. At that time there were hundreds of Baiji in Yangtze River but now there is nothing! It is such a tragic! I think if the government did a job on advertising about this before, the result might have been much better. I grow up along Yangtze River and did not know Baiji is on the list of threatened species and has died out until i watched the programme! i got up early this morning and searched articles about it. now i can hardly express my feelings. i wish Baiji can be found in the future!

Hanji Cheng
[email protected]

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

非说不可

我看了《大家谈》节目后,有这么几点体会:
1、白暨豚不该灭绝;
2、濒危动物最高主管部门负有主要责任;
3、科研机构陈女士负有直接责任,她有决心,有热情,但没有能力。可惜啊!

Something have to say

I have watched "Dajiatan" and have realised that:
1. "Baiji" should not have been died out.
2. Relevant national departments in charge of endangered species should be mainly responsible for it.
3. Ms Chen who is heading the research team has direct responsibilities. She has her resolutions, passion, but is not a capable person, unfortunately!

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

一定要试一下

只要找到活体就有希望。通过现在的科学技术来拯救他(她)与其他淡水豚类繁殖,有没有白暨豚的精子,脱氧核糖核酸分子之类的保存。

You have to try

As long as live Baiji exist, there is still hope. Whether or not their sperm can be obtained, we can try save the Baiji and other freshwater dolphin breeds through modern technology of conserving their DNA.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

早就应该拯救白暨豚了

英国最近也有类似新闻。我震惊之后做了一些信息搜集发现了这篇文章。我十分怀疑中国人是否意识到了这一点,但是在阅读评论后得到肯定的回答。我非常希望还能找到几头,让这个物种存活下去。

The Baiji should have been saved

This has made the news recently in the Uk. I was shocked enough to do some research, and found this article. I do wonder about the sensibility of the Chinese people (if there is such a word in Chinese) but was reassured to read some of the comments here. I very much hope a few individuals can be found, and that somehow the species can be saved.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

后果比想象的严重

淡水豚世界上仅有4种,即南美洲亚马孙河的亚河豚,印度次大陆的恒河豚和印河豚,再就是中国长江的白暨豚。打个比方,大熊猫有很多熊兄弟,金丝猴有许多猴兄弟,它们如果灭绝,还有相似的东西凭吊。但白暨豚没有兄弟,所以,当它真正的灭绝时,人们甚至连想象的力气也没有了。

The consequences will be worsen than we imagine

There are only 4 types of freshwater dolphin: the boto or Amazon river dolphins in the Amazon region, the Ganges River dolphin and Indus River dolphins in India, and the Baiji in the Yangtze River in China. For instance, the Giant Panda has several relatives in the bear family; Golden monkey has many relatives in the monkeys’ family, if they become extinct, at least will have some other close related species to keep and ponder on the past. However, Baiji doesn’t have any similar species in their family. Hence, we are unable to imagine they look alike in the event of extinction.