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中国高速发展的环境代价 (第二部分)

中国政府需采取有效措施来解决该国恶化的生态危机。蒋高明和高吉喜说,加强环境法制和完善 官员考核机制是关键。

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有一段时间,中国的经济学家们曾自豪地称“中国是世界的制造业工厂”。遗憾的是,由于所造出的产品是高能源损耗、高资源消耗、高污染排放、低附加值的,中国在将商品出口到国外(尤其是发达国家)的时候,将污染留给了自己。中国生产1亿条裤子才能换回美国的1架波音飞机;中国年生产70亿双鞋,全世界的人都穿不过来,而制造巨大数量的裤子和鞋子的污染代价也是巨大的。

中国经济快速发展的环境代价中,最表观、最直接、最沉重、当代人就能够体现到的,就是城乡环境污染。由于城镇环保基础设施滞后,生活污染物未经处理或未达标就排放,造成全国污染物排放量有增无减。对北京、上海、河北等10省市的调查结果显示,1986-2000期间,未处理的生活污水排放量达55亿吨,净增长了22.7亿吨;城镇生活垃圾排放量增加了2896万吨。

在农村,由于拖拉机取代了畜力,农民不再饲养大牲口,有机肥来源少,种地过分依赖化肥,造成化肥施用量居高不下。然而,由于施用方式不当,化肥利用效率低。中国化肥平均施用量达434.3千克/公顷, 是国际化肥安全施用上限(225千克/公顷)的1.93倍,但利用率仅为40%左右, 其余60%的化肥贡献给了土壤和地下水。2000年,中国农药的平均施用量为13.4千克/公顷,其中有机磷农药占70%; 高毒农药占70%; 杀虫剂占70%; 有60-70%残留在土壤中。除农药、化肥外,另外一种白色污染即农药膜的污染也很严重。目前中国每年有约50万吨农膜残留在土壤中,残膜率达40%。除此之外,每年尚有1亿多吨秸秆直接露天焚烧,占中国秸秆产生总量的17%,高速公路、机场等交通运输安全受到影响。畜禽养殖污染物的产生量达到工业固体废弃物的2倍多,部分地区如河南、湖南、江西甚至超过4倍。

严重的城乡污染在江河湖泊和近海显现出来。中国内陆七大水系如淮河、海河、松花江、辽河、长江中下游以及珠江中段,近一半河段严重污染,86%的城市河段水质普遍超标。环保部门在淮河2000公里的河段取样分析发现,78.7%的河段不符合饮用水标准,79.7%的河段不符合渔业用水标准,32%的河段不符合灌溉用水标准。2001年,发生赤潮77次,比2000年增加49次,增加面积约5千平方公里,累计面积达1.5万平方公里,造成直接经济损失10亿元。

赤潮, thesix

因环境污染造成的经济损失呈现增加趋势,如果控制不好,将严重拖中国经济发展的后腿。1990-1998期间中国因环境污染造成的直接经济损失达1000亿元/年,分别为同期国内生产总值和国家财政收入的1.4%和29.4%。这还不包括因环境污染造成的社会和政治危机在内。

 

我们应该做些什么?

上述严重的生态环境问题,已引起中国中央政府高度重视。温家宝总理强调新形势下的环保关键,是加快实现“三个转变”:第一个转变从重经济增长、轻环境保护转变保护环境与经济增长并重,从指导思想上把环境保护摆上更加突出的战略位置,在经济发展的同时减少环境污染。第二个转变从环境保护滞后经济发展转变环境保护和经济发展同步,改被动、事后、补救、消极环保,为主动、事前、预防、积极环保。第三个转变从主要用行政办法保护环境转变为综合运用法律、经济、技术和必要的行政办法解决环境问题,适应新形势,加快体制机制创新,用改革的办法解决发展中的环境问题。具体地,我们认为中国解决生态环境问题应从以下几个方面突破:

第一,坚定不移地将绿色GDP纳入官员考核机制。开展生态功能规划,规范开发活动,发展循环经济,将绿色GDP纳入官员考核机制,并将长期坚持下去。中国的许多问题是利益问题,官员的利益是政绩,过去强调GDP, 官员就将环境问题放在次要的位置;如果国家下决心解决环境问题,就必须从考核官员的政绩入手。在一些生态敏感地区,要将环境保护置于经济发展之上,国家对该类地区实施补偿。

第二,增加保护区投入,建立流域补偿机制。对保护区的投入可以先从国家级保护区开始,并列入国家的经费预算,实现“国家级,国家管”,变保护区目前的经营开发为保护执法,并主动带动社区的经济发展。国家级保护区的管理经费解决了,省市级保护区可以参照国家的做法从地方财政中安排固定的费用进行日常管理,从而使国家业已建立的2194个自然保护区早日摆脱“纸上保护区”的命运。对那些为国家生态环境保护做出了贡献的区域或流域,因保护而造成的经济损失应由国家合理补偿,经济发达地区应承担生态补偿的义务。

第三,完善生态环境保护法规体系和管理体制。健全生态环境保护法制体系,建立高效的生态保护体制,该机制应对于制造环境污染和造成生态退化的经济活动给予强烈的干预。要强化国家环境保护总局执法力度,提升国家环境保护总局在国民经济发展中的战略地位。建议将国家环境保护总局更名为中华人民共和国环境部。

第四,开展生态环境警示教育,鼓励公众参与环境保护。全面改善生态环境,人与自然和谐发展,需要培育全民生态文化,建设生态文明,全面提高公民生态保护意识。在环境保护方面,中国公民必须从“被动参与”变“主动参与”,运用国家给予的法律利器维护公民环境权益,使得环境破坏行为成为“过街老鼠、人人喊打”。这样,环境保护NGO的作用就应当加强,媒体还要强化对严重环境破坏事件的曝光力度。

第五,将环境保护列为产业来开发。发达国家从“先污染、后治理”的怪圈走出后,就意识到了这点,已经形成了严密的制度。以市场机制鼓励民间力量参与环境治理,变“制造”污染赚钱为治理污染也能撰钱还“积德”,那么,那些污染企业就可能选择后者而不选择前者。这样,国家需要明确环境保护和治理目标,划出专门的环境费用。经费使用应当与环境治理实际效果相结合,而不能将费用分摊给有关部门,由部门组织实施环境治理任务。


蒋高明,中国科学院植物研究所首席研究员、博士生导师,联合国教科文组织人与生物圈中国国家委员会副秘书长、中国环境文化促进会理事。他提出的“城市植被”概念和“以自然力恢复中国退化生态系统”等观点得到社会各界广泛认可。

高吉喜,中国环境科学院首席专家,生态所所长,长期从事中国生态功能区环境评价、区域经济发展战略环评、环境污染监测研究。

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

绿色GDP势在必行!

非绿色GDP考核制度该终结了,正如抢劫得来的财富不能与劳动得来得财富相提并论,以环境消耗为代价的GDP不能作为官员的政绩,否则,岂不成了谁作恶越多谁越能高升?

There is no alternative to Green GDP!

The evaluating system for non-green GDP needs to be ended. Just as robbed fortunes cannot be equalled to laboured fortunes; GDP which does not take environmental cost into consideration should not be regarded as an achievement when officials' work is assessed. Otherwise, would this not mean that those who do more wrong are those who get promoted?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

中国的环境代价将是全球性的

中国太大了,它的环境代价将是全球性的,正如它的环境恶化也是全球造成的。全世界的人都应该来帮助而不是单纯指责中国,毕竟我们只有一个地球。如果不能,地球将万劫不复!

China’s environmental cost will affect the entire world

China is a too large country. The costs to its environment will affect the entire world, as much as the deterioration of its environment has been caused by the entire world. All the people in the world must help China, and not simply criticize it. After all, we only have one planet. If this cannot be done, there is no hope for our planet.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

与政府的关系

我从德国新闻杂志<

Relations with government

I learn from the German news magazine, Der Spiegel, that China Daily reported on Wednesday that China had "flunked the first test" in meeting goals aimed at saving energy and protecting the environment. The new targets for China's 2006-2010 Five Year Plan called for energy consumption per unit of GDP to be cut by 20 percent, while polluting emissions were to be cut by 10 percent. The target set for 2006 had been to reduce consumption by 4 percent and pollution emissions by 2 percent. In fact, things went in the wrong direction: there was an increase in energy consumption in the first half of 2006.

Regulations and scale limits imposed fairly are necessary for ecologically efficient production - however, the problem in any society is that state regulators (officials) working closely with business are eventually "taken over" by them. A "revolving door" between business and state undermines effective regulation. Having developed capitalist enterprises as a means to its planning goals the Chinese state is now effectively captured by these business interests and has insufficient independent countervailing power to control their activities.

To address this requires independent organisations and a free press - by people who do not have the goal of trying to "take power", only of trying to influence what those in power do by their wisdom.

Why indeed would want to take over a state? It is too much work and too dangerous:

"When Hui Tzu was prime minister of Liang, Chuang Tzu set off to visit him. Someone said to Hui Tzu, "Chuang Tzu is coming because he wants to replace you as prime minister!" With this Hui Tzu was filled with alarm and searched all over the state for three days and three nights trying to find Chuang Tzu. Chuang Tzu then came to see him and said, "In the south there is a bird called the Yuan-ch'u - I wonder if you've ever heard of it? The Yuan-ch'u rises up from the South Sea and flies to the North Sea, and it will rest on nothing but the Wu-t'ung tree, eat nothing but the fruit of the Lien, and drink only from springs of sweet water. Once there was an owl who had gotten hold of a half-rotten old rat, and as the Yuan-ch'u passed by, it raised its head, looked up at the Yuan-ch'u, and said, `Shoo!' Now that you have this Liang state of yours, are you trying to shoo me?"

However, without threatening ambitions, independent organisations can be motivated to work for the revitalisation of old traditions - for example, those that we can find in the Huainanzi about standards of government and the relations between the governed and the people:

"The law of ancient kinds forbade hunters to deplete the herds or to take the yearlings and forbade fishers to empty the ponds. Traps and nets were not to be set before certain times; wood was not to be cut before the leaves fell; fields were not to be burned before the insects went into hibernation. Pregnant or nursing animals were not to be killed; eggs were not to be taken from nests; fish less than a foot long were not to be caught."

And

"When society is orderly you protect yourself with justice; when society is confused, you protect justice by yourself."

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

绿色GDP,“木桶短板”与跨学科合作

绿色GDP的作用还是应该肯定的,对官员的政绩考核而言,绿色GDP因为统计上的滞后性和统计指标的异质性等因素,存在实施上的困难(详见此网站发布的人大马中教授的文章《知难行易的绿色GDP》).
怎么办?马中教授给出的办法是国家和地方政府制定和执行越来越严格的环境保护的目标。

环境科学领域和环境经济学的专家只能也本分地把这个问题的解决推进至此了,“木捅短板”在哪里?

我认为应该有政治学和公共政策的学者专家站出来,来回应如何在中国的政治体制下,对官员进行可持续发展政绩考核提出可行的基本框架方案来。

换句话讲,环境问题的综合性在中国还没有得到应有的综合性的应对。尤其是在环境政治和政策领域,这个最难“拿来”的地方,真的需要本土化和为跨学科合作打基础的基础研究。

另外,作为环境科学领域的两位专家,为什么没有提及提高环境科学的研究投入和发展力度?


全球环境研究所 付华辉

Green GDP, "the short board on the wooden barrel" and interdisciplinary collaboration

The effects of Green GDP should be acknowledged and supported. Yet from the standpoint of state officials who assess government performance, the inadequate and contradictory statistics on Green GDP pose great difficulties for its implementation (for a more detailed account, see People’s University Professor Ma Zhong's article "Green GDP: Implementation in the Face of Difficulties” published on this website). What to do? The method proposed by Professor Ma Zhong is for Beijing and local governments to devise and implement ever stricter environmental conservation policies. Experts in the fields of environmental technology and enviromental economic studies can only promote a similar solution within their professional capacities. But whatever happened to the “short board on the wooden barrel” (i.e., the crux of the matter)? I think that scholars of political science and public policy should get involved. They should devise a workable policy framework for officials who assess government performance on sustainable development under the current political system. In other words, the comprehensive nature of environmental problems has yet to receive the comprehensive response it deserves. Especially in the sphere of environmental politics and policy, this most “intangible” of areas, what we really need is fundamental research based on indigenous and interdisciplinary collaboration to lay the groundwork for further action. Moreover, why have two experts in the field of environmental science not raised the issue of raising investment in and bolstering the development of environmental science research? Fu Huahui - Global Environment Research Center

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

敬与网友和潘岳商榷。

是否应该在“环保民生指数”指标体系的制定上将公众环保指数拆分为环保意识、环保行为和环保科技以及环境满意度。

“环保民生指数”如果不能够包含创新指数因素和科技全面发展指数因素,就远远落后于科技时代的发展了。

中国公众环保意识和环保行为这两项不及格的得分给我们敲了警钟,也给我们的工作提出了新的要求。如何提高公众的环保意识和环保行为,有赖于我们的宣传教育,有赖于媒体的舆论监督,有赖于更多行之有效的法律法规,有赖于更多的人为环保事业做出无私的奉献。

[email protected]

Want to discuss with Pan Yue and all readers

Should the index for Chinese ordinary people's involvement in environment protection be calculated by taking into consideration four factors: awareness, behaviors, science and technology, as well as satisfaction of the current environment situation?

In this technology era, the index should indicate the use of technology in China's environment protection.

Lower public awareness and inadequacy in actions sound the alarm that China is in urgent need of efforts in environment protection. This also means there is a tough task in front of us.

To increase awareness and enhance actions, more media, education, regulation and individual efforts are needed as they are key resolutions.

lu[email protected]


Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

给非政府组织以发展的空间

在环境保护和社会发展方面,仅仅政府部门的力量是远远不够的,中国需要给非政府组织以合理的发展空间。不论是在环境保护、扶贫、救灾等方面,还是调动社会各界力量,促进社会公众参与社会经济事务,非政府组织都能够发挥积极的作用。这也是走向公民社会的基础。

Please give more space to non-governmental organizations

In the concern of environmental protection and development of society itself, the single source of support from the goverment is far less than enough. China needs to give non-governmental organizaitons reasonable space to develope. These organizations can play a positive role in environmental issues, help-poverty, disaster relief, etc. They also encourage the whole society to work together and public to take part in ecomonic issues. Giving non-governmental organizations more space is also a necessary condition to Civil Society