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"特殊利益"集团在破坏中国环境

中国政府对环保有很强的政治意愿,但地方政府与企业勾结成的特殊利益集团在阻障着中国环保的进程。刘鉴强就谁是作恶者的问题进行了采访和阐述。

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刚刚过去的2006年,中国的环境太糟糕了。这一年有更多的环境问题让中国领导人烦恼,他们就环境问题的批示数量比上一年增加了一半,即使他们再三要求“严格执法”,也无法遏止环境的持续恶化:每两天发生一次严重环境污染事故,中央政府年初提出的能耗降低4%、污染物排放降低2%的目标,都没有完成。

中国公众更无法忍受越来越糟糕的环境,他们每天向政府投诉1650次,全年有60万次,比2005年增加30%。1月15日,《中国公众环保民生指数》显示,10%以上的大城市人认为自己所在的城市不适合居住,每10个人中,就有4个对自己城市的空气质量不满,认为环境污染给本人和家人健康造成了很大影响。

13亿人都在受害,那么,谁是作恶者?

2007年1月15日,我采访国家环保总局副局长潘岳,再一次向他提出这个问题:“谁在破坏中国环境?”

在此之前,答案是模糊不清的,很多官员的回答是贫困。因为中国太穷了,需要发展经济,而发展经济,就不得不牺牲环境,在一些工业污染特别严重的地区,有些官员甚至这样反驳批评者:“我们宁愿被烟呛死,也不想饿死。”

如果你不了解真相,这话听起来铿锵有力。但真相并非如此,在中国污染最严重的地区,人们吃得饱,穿得暖,他们没有挨饿的风险,却每天面对污染的威胁,空气污染和水污染令民众患上各上疾病,包括癌症。在死去时,因为没有医疗保险,他们两手空空,那些工厂主所赚的浸着血的钱,从未进入这些受害者的口袋。

敢言的潘岳完全否认了“反贫困”这种听起来很人道的借口。自从他4年前担任环保总局副局长,他就认为,是现行的官僚体制造成了中国的环境污染。他说,问题缘于地方官员扭曲的“政绩观”。在经济增长压倒一切的中国,所管辖地区GDP的增长,是官员的主要政绩。中国的官员并非由选举产生,而是由上级提拔,而提拔的首要标准,是这位官员贡献了多少GDP。因此,各级官员只关心经济增长,而不管付出多少环境代价。

虽然这种解释大大接近了事实,但还不是事实本身。“政绩观”有一个隐含的前提,即官员想做出政绩,他们的心愿是好的,只是因为“发展”与“环境”之间有冲突,他们只好优先发展经济。这一逻辑,与优先解决“吃饱饭”的逻辑大同小异。

但这不能解释所有问题。盲目的GDP增长,并不总是能获得上级的肯定。2006年,中央政府停止了违规的内蒙古新丰电厂建设,同时处分了支持这个电厂的内蒙古自治区政府负责人。

所以,我问潘岳:既然中央政府并不喜欢那些以破坏环境来换得经济增长的官员,而且,中央政府对环境保护的政治意愿很强,比如,胡锦涛等现任国家领导人开始掌管权力的2002年,中国提出要走"新型工业化道路",要"把可持续发展放在十分突出的地位"。2003年,中国领导人提出科学发展观,2006年又将能耗、主要污染物排放列为约束性指标。但2006 年仍然成为中国环境最差的一年,各地各行业违规建工厂,无法遏止,几乎到了疯狂的地步。那么,症结到底是什么?

潘岳修正了自己的答案。他说,一种特殊利益结合现象,和错误的政绩观一起成为环境持续恶化的主要原因。高污染、高耗能行业的疯狂扩张中,产生了一种特殊利益结合现象。一方面,某些地方政府通过上大型重工业项目,追求短平快的业绩;另一方面,在地方政府庇护下, 一些企业把全民的资源环境变现为私利,而且方式极端粗鲁,不顾后果。这种现象,上干扰中央的宏观调控,下侵犯百姓权益引发社会不安。

这一次,潘岳说到了问题的实质。虽然他没有直接说出地方政府与企业勾结成特殊利益集团,而只是用了一个比较模糊的词“特殊利益结合现象”,但任何中国人都可以从日常的环境事件中,得出他隐含的结论。

在北京的圆明园铺膜工程中,圆明园管理者是一个政府机构,但他们将自己企业化,在圆明园内搞非法工程,让自己成立的企业承包工程,从中牟利,而支持他们的,是他们背后的区政府。去年的9月,在遥远的四川康定县,6个藏族牧民被当地警察抓走,因为他们反对在家乡的牧场上挖矿山。开矿的是一个外地企业,矿山抢占了牧民的牧场,并污染他们的水源。当社区居民反对这个矿山时,矿山老板不必出面,而是当地政府派出了警察。类似的事件,在中国俯拾皆是。

在2007年初的新一轮“环保风暴”中,潘岳用了新的办法“区域限批”,即对唐山、吕梁、莱芜、六盘水4个城市及大唐国际、华能、华电、国电等4大电力集团处以停批、限批所有建设项目的行政制裁。这一制裁,是明确打击由大企业和地方政府结成的利益集团。在风暴刮起后,仍有一些地方官企联盟,对抗环保总局。《南方周末》赵小剑报道,她去山西吕梁调查,吕梁主管环境的副市长信誓旦旦地说:“我们一定要举一反三,要一个企业一个企业地排查,绝不能再出现这样的(违规)情况。”但同时,吕梁的中吕焦化厂,仍在偷偷排出有毒废水,被环保总局稽查人员当场查获。

在中国,地方政府与企业合谋获利由来已久,他们结成利益联盟,以污染环境为代价,疯狂兴建大型电力、化工、煤矿、造纸等工程,企业获得巨大利润,地方政府也得到巨额回扣。很多地方政府官员这样做,并非为了“政绩”,而是赤祼裸地攫取黑利。政府级别越高,企业越大,作恶越多。

现在,越来越多的人警惕这一趋势,环保总局也做出了巨大的努力,2005和2006年,潘岳刮了两次“环保风暴”,打击包括三峡总公司和中国石化这样的巨型企业。但是,风暴越刮越大,环境越来越差。

只有环保总局是不够的,中央政府各管理部门,应该承担起自己的责任。在中国,环境保护的权力被各部门分割,发改委管可持续发展,气象局管沙尘暴的公布,林业局管森林保护和治沙,建设部管城市污水,海洋局管海洋污染,水利部管江河,农业部管面缘污染,国土资源部管土壤。当权力被分割得所剩无几的环保总局勉力与利益集团博弈时,其他部门保持沉默。

我想,最重要的是,在这严峻时刻,中央政府应该做点什么了。

 

刘鉴强,1969年生,《南方周末》资深记者,长期关注环境事件。他的有关圆明园、虎跳峡和转基因稻米等重大环保事件的调查报道都引起了中国社会各界强烈反响。

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

铿锵有力的文章, 只捣中国环境问题的要害!!

感谢我们的记者来揭露中国环保步履维艰的现状。这样的文章直捣问题要害,读来让人痛快!!

环境是大家的,但“特殊”利益只是少部分人的。中国大众需要团结起来和这些导致环境破坏的集团做斗争。这将会是一场持久战,它的成败取决于中央和地方政府的打击力度。

官僚主义是一个世界问题,不是中国的专利。但中国要解决环境问题,杀住官僚主义作风是工作的重中之中。

Punchy and revealing article!

Thanks to the author for disclosing the real reasons behind China's lack of advancement in pollution control.

It is such a revealing article, that everybody should not miss.

Environment quality matters to everybody, but "special interest" groups just benefit a handful of people.

The public in China should unite to fight against those groups. No doubt, it will be a long-lasting battle, and whether the public can win it or not depends upon the strength of efforts exerted by the Central government and its local branches.

Bureaucracy is a world issue instead of being exclusive to China. However, China needs to restrain its bureaucracy, which should be a focus of pollution control efforts in the country.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

爽快!

支持刘鉴强!中国难得的好记者!支持潘岳,中国难得的新式官员!

Exciting article!

Support brilliant journalist Jianqiang Liu! China has few journalists with the strength and qualifications of Liu.

Support Pan Yue for his new style of working as a senior official.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

经济发展与环境保护就不能齐头并进吗?

保护环境就不能和经济发展并肩前行吗?我想这是一个值得讨论和深思的问题。经济学家和社会学家应对此研究有所贡献,来为健康的经济发展提供合理的理论指导。

Can environment protection not go with econonomic growth?

Is it true that environment protection is completely opposite to economic growth, and they could not proceed in parallel? I think this is still a topic worth debates and research.

Economists and sociologists should contribute to this research and offer rational theory to guide healthy economic development.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

第二个计划是什么呢?

"在中央政府有一个晴天,而在外省有阴天。在外区已经下雨了,在城里很多人因水灾而淹死“。我想问中国人的身体为什么要破坏?在很大程度上是为了赚一大批美元——就是回崩溃经济的货币,其中欠款都不回还了。这个是不是完全没有用呢?中国的出口畅旺完了以后,经济发展要向什么方向走?第二个第计划是什么呢?有人觉得“保护环境可能是经济发展的相反”,我想指出发展需要很多能源和新装备,建筑,基础设施的材料。经济上所有的能源一半是发展过程的结果。而且生态系统不是经济的子系统,不只是资源库和无限用的垃圾堆。经济系统是生态的子系统。它受到生态的限制——这个是比较有道理的观念。如果经济太过分地危害生态就会用完耗尽的能源和材料,也回消灭支持人类的生态系统服务。这个你可以从能源危机和身体问题看的出来,也是跟中国对温室效应的贡献有关。如果中国人的身体被破坏,发展的好处不比它的坏处多。不民主的话,这样的“代价”不会在经济计划包括—不算就回忽略。显示的是,中央政府的力量不够强,不回解决这些问题。Brian Davey

What is Plan B?

"Out of a clear sunny day in the central government it becomes cloudy in the provinces. In the districts it is already raining and in the cities people are drowning in the floods."

One has to ask for what is the health of the Chinese people being destroyed? Largely to accumulate a huge pile of dollars - the currency of an economy heading to collapse, whose debts can never be repaid. Is this not an exercise in futility? When the Chinese export boom collapses, and it will eventually, what direction will economic development then take? What is "plan b"?

To the person that asks "if it is true that environment protection is completely opposite to economic growth" I would point out growth requires huge amounts of energy and materials for new equipment, buildings, infrastructure. A half of all energy in an economy is the result of the growth process. Further, the ecological system is not a sub-system of the economy. It is not merely a resource store and dump that can be used up indefinitely. The economic system is a sub system of the ecological one. It is bounded and constrained by the ecological system - this is the more rational viewpoint. If the economy encroaches into the ecological system too far it will exhaust the sources of depletable energy and materials and will destroy the ecological system services which sustain all life. You can see that energy crisis and in the declining health effects on the Chinese people plus China's contribution to the greenhouse effect. If the health of the Chinese people is destroyed then the additional benefits of growth are being exceed by the additional costs. However, without democracy at a local level these "costs" are not adequately taken into account in economic decision making - they are not counted but ignored. It seems clear that the central government does not have sufficient power to do anything about this.

Brian Davey

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

中国环境问题和中国房价问题

中国环境治理和中国房价控制差不多。中央政府越是重视越是痛下决心加强调控,房价越是疯长,普通百姓依然买不起房子,富人的房子越多越大。同样,中国环境越治理越糟糕,不是治理不得力,而是治理赶不上破坏,更赶不上地方勾结的瓦解。新的中央政府无疑是有史以来最英明的,但痼疾太深了,短期很难彻底解决。

The problems of China's environment and real estate market

The administration of China's environment and the regulation of its real estate market are closely related. As China's central government shows ever greater concern and determination in its tightening of regulatory measures, the real estate bubble nonetheless inflates ever more; the common people are still unable to purchase a home, while the homes of the wealthy increase in size and quantity. In the same manner, China's environmental administration continues to worsen, not because it lacks force, but because it does not keep pace with environmental degradation, much less with the disintegrative effects of localized collusion. The new central government is no doubt the most bold and transparent to date, but its chronic afflictions run too deep, and in the short term it will be very difficult to consummately resolve them.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

积重难返

人民币难买晴朗的天空.环保总局“环保风暴”过后是铺天盖地沙尘暴.官僚机制产生的贪官们和形形色色的财主们勾结私通,导致国有资产流失,生态恶化,人民受难,政府遭遇信任危机.恶势已成,盘根错结,政令不通,欺上瞒下.需要全体人民和有良心的官员团结起来,用法律的手术刀,切除毒瘤.中国巨人才能从整体变态中恢复,从封建的“一人为本”,变为以人为本。LY

Unhealthy old customs die hard

Renminbi cannot buy a clear sky. Just after the environmental bureau's "environmental storm" has passed comes a dust storm that blots out heaven and earth. The corrupt officials produced by the bureaucratic organs and rich men of all descriptions conspire and communicate with each other secretly. As a result, the country has its assets washed away, its ecology deteriorates, the people suffer calamities. Government meets with a crisis of confidence, an evil force has already grown up, deep-rooted, and decrees are blocked up. Superiors are deceived, subordinates deluded. We need the whole body of the people and those officials who have a conscience to unite, to use the surgical instrument of the law, as with the removal of a poisonous tumour. The Chinese giant can now recover from this entire abnormal metamorphosis, moving from the feudal notion of "the individual first" to "the people first".

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

特殊利益集团同样在劫难逃

不管是怎样势力庞大的特殊利益集团,都同样难逃环境破坏的恶果,他们非常不幸地跟我们受害者同在一个地球。环境的特殊性在于它的终极是人类大同,所有人终将共同承担最后的灭顶之灾。

No escape from fate for the “special interests”

Unfortunately, the “special interests” are with us on the same planet, hence; regardless of the enormous influence own by of them, they are still unable to avoid the impact caused by destroying the environment. The special interest of environment ultimately will be harmonized with human being, eventually all being will assume disastrous consequences from destroying environment.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

中央领导可能比我们更清楚

中央领导可能比我们更清楚,但解决的途径在哪里?他们跟我们一样是有无限困惑的。剧烈的社会变革是不可行的,但点点滴滴的改良何时才能根除呢?或者只能找一个平衡,彻底清明的世界毕竟只是理想而已。

Chinese leaders may possibly better understand than us

Chinese leaders may possibly better understand than us, but where are the solutions? They have got the same unlimited confusion as us. Severe total transformation of society should not be carrying out; but also when partial transformation can be eliminated? A balance should be struck, if possible, between severe total transformation of society and partial change; however, this may be an unachievable ideal.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

特殊利益

"保护环境就不能和经济发展并肩前行吗?" 不是,这个不对,美国的环保商业直接或间接地提供百万就业机会。这就求厂家和消费者接受临时利润的减少和小物价上涨,(想想)你和你家人身体价值是多少,(就可以接受这样的现实).

the special interests

"Is it true that environment protection is completely opposite to economic growth"

No, it is not untrue, the environmental industries in the US provide jobs for millions directly and indirectly. It does require factory owners and consumers to accept temporary reductions in profits and a small increase in prices, but what is the dollar value of you and your family's health?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

特殊利益(第二个部分)

很多特殊利益组织就是为了避免北美和欧盟的污染和勞動法而来到发展中国家的外国公司。

the special interests 2

A considerable group of special interests are the foreign companies who left N. America and the EU to come to developing countries to escape pollution and labor laws.