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中国在调查"看不见"的土壤污染状况

往往被人忽视的土壤污染已在中国大地蔓延。徐琦 说,中国正展开全国性的土壤污染状况调查来查明此污染的类型、程度和原因。

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民以食为天,食品安全本是老百姓最朴素、最根本的需求。但曾几何时,餐桌却成了最不安分的地方,毒大米、毒蔬菜的惊呼不绝于耳。随着中国土壤现状调查及污染防治项目的正式启动,土壤污染成为继水污染、大气污染、噪声污染和固体废物污染后,受到社会关注最多的污染问题之一。

土壤污染被称作“看不见的污染”,其他污染形式可以通过污水横流、黑烟滚滚、臭气熏天等外在表现形式向人们敲响警钟,而土壤污染却往往容易被人忽视,这种危害极大的污染就在这样的“温床”上趁机蔓延开来。

事实是,中国一些地区的土壤已受到不同程度的污染。据中国国家环保总局有关负责人介绍,土壤污染的总体形势相当严峻,已对生态环境、食品安全和农业可持续发展构成威胁。一是土壤污染程度加剧。据不完全调查,目前中国受污染的耕地约有1.5亿亩,污水灌溉污染耕地3250万亩,固体废弃物堆存占地和毁田200万亩,合计约占耕地总面积的1/10以上,其中多数集中在经济较发达的地区。二是土壤污染危害巨大。据估算,中国每年遭重金属污染的粮食达1200万吨,造成的直接经济损失超过200亿元。土壤污染造成有害物质在农作物中积累,并通过食物链进入人体,引发各种疾病,最终危害人体健康。土壤污染直接影响土壤生态系统的结构和功能,最终将对生态安全构成威胁。三是土壤污染防治基础薄弱。目前,中国土壤污染的面积、分布和程度不清,导致防治措施缺乏针对性。防治土壤污染的法律还存在空白,土壤环境标准体系也未形成。资金投入有限,土壤科学研究难以深入进行。有相当一部分群众和企业界对土壤污染的严重性和危害性缺乏认识,土壤污染日趋严重。

更令人忧心的是,土壤污染尤其是重金属污染治理成本高且很难彻底根除。中国国家地质实验测试中心专家刘晓端说,土壤中的重金属天然分布十分广泛,多具有不可逆性,不能降解,但可能转化为金属有机物或在有些生物中高倍富集,经多种途径进入人体,并在体内蓄积毒性

中国地质调查局基础调查部有关负责人接受记者采访时说,“地质工作的目标早已不再仅限于挖土找矿,正在向多目标转变。”随着农业安全问题逐步从保证粮食数量向保障食品安全转变,土地管理从量的管理转变为质的管理,环境意识的逐步提高,勘查地球化学这一学科在经济建设和社会发展的各方面日益发挥着重要作用。

勘查地球化学的学术思想和技术方法,是开展生态地球化学调查评价的基础,上至大气圈、水圈,下连生命圈和岩石圈,中国对各类型土壤进行大规模联动、高密度、高精度测试等,是迄今为止世界其他国家无法做到的。它不但可使勘查地球化学在环境、农业、土地质量、海洋、矿产勘查等领域中做出成绩,而且还为学科思路理论、勘查地球化学方法技术的发展做出了贡献。

北京大学地球与空间科学学院的鲁安怀表示,通过调查,已发现中国一大批城市、农村甚至对中国整个生态环境产生重大影响的区域地球化学异常。调查组提出了一批事关国计民生和经济社会发展的生态环境保护建议,引起各级政府的高度重视。通过21个省(市、区)的调查,发现各种局部生态地球化学问题,如地方病高发区、优质特色农产品和工矿企业环境问题等,并有针对性地进行了一系列评价研究工作,经济效益与社会效益非常显著。

据了解,中华人民共和国成立以来分别于上世纪50年代末和70年代末开展了两次全国性土壤普查。这两次土壤普查的目的都是针对农业生产而进行的,主要是了解土壤肥力,而对土壤污染“说不清”。而此次由国家拨款10亿元开展的全国土壤污染状况调查的总体目标是:全面、系统、准确掌握全国土壤环境质量总体状况,查明重点地区土壤污染类型、程度和原因,评估土壤污染风险,确定土壤环境安全等级,筛选并试点示范污染土壤修复技术,构建适合中国国情的土壤污染防治法律法规及标准体系,提升土壤环境监管能力。调查将于2008年结束,重点调查区域是基本农田保护区和粮食主产区;土壤污染状况调查的重点区域是长三角、珠三角、环渤海湾地区、东北老工业基地、成渝平原、渭河平原以及主要矿产资源型城市;土壤环境质量监督管理体系建设的重点是形成土壤环境监测能力,拟定土壤污染防治法草案。

中国地质调查局称中国将对长江流域、黄河流域、东北平原、沿海经济带、西部地区等六大区域近300万平方公里国土进行土壤普查,“十一五”期间将在106万平方公里的基础上再调查100万平方公里,而全部工作预计将于“十二五”期间完成,届时将把各区域情况汇总,拼接为“全国多目标地球化学图”,届时,我们才会对中国的土壤污染状况有一个全面真实的了解。

 

本文摘编自《中国环境报》2006年12月28日

徐琦,《中国环境报》记者。

首页图片Ari Moore

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

农民是土地污染的最大受害者

农民兄弟们是土地污染的最大受害者。中国应该建立机制来Peasants使造成污染的企业对受到影响的农民进行补偿。

Farmers are the victims of soil contamination

Farmers are the major victims of soil contamination. China should build a mechanism to make sure the polluters compensate peasants for their affected farmlands.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

污染源自何处?

什么是造成土壤污染的主要根源? 是储存在空气中的颗粒、灌溉用水、工业废弃物、杀虫剂或者是化肥的污染所造成的呢?对目前正在建设中的中国,偶尔在操作废水处理的工作以改善河流素质的当时也制造了“生物土” (污泥)。从理想上来说,这些污泥应该传布在土壤中成为有机肥和土壤调节剂, 然而,还必须非常谨慎而不至于成为污染土壤的根源。为了预防类似土壤污染的发生,废水处理公司在进行工作时必须负起责任,了解污泥的质量所将带来的影响和管制废水中有毒物质的排放。对目前的情况而言,如果在这一方面缺乏相应的措施,土壤污染的情况即将显著的加剧。S Spooner, 英国/ 北京

Sources of pollution?

What are the main sources of soil pollution? - Airbourne deposition, irrigation water, industrial waste, pesticides and contaminated fertilisers?

As China gradually constructs, and sometimes operates, wastewater treatment works to improve the quality of rivers so biosolids (sludge) will be produced. Ideally this should be spread on land as an organic fertiliser and soil conditioner, however great care will be required to ensure that this does not become a further source of soil contamination.

Preventing such pollution will require waste water companies to have a responsibility for sludge quality and powers to know about and control toxic discharges to the sewers that run to their works.

Without such measures, and they do not generally exist at present, the story of soil contamination will become dramatically worse.

S Spooner, UK / Beijing

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

土壤污染与水污染同等严峻

土壤污染与水污染密切关系到人们的生命安全,同样重要,同样严峻。在水污染领域,有了马军的《中国水危机》,众人觉醒。但在土壤污染方面,的确还没有得到足够的重视,希望有人尽快把此问题全面深刻地揭示出来。

Soil pollution is as severely as water pollution

Soil pollution is related closely with human's life safty as water pollution to be,with the same importance and grimness.In the field of water pollution,people realised as there was Ma Jun's .However to the soil pollution,it don't be given enough attention,so here to hope that someone show the problem profoundly soon.

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匿名 | Anonymous

土壤污染的源与流

简略补充介绍一下我所知道的土壤污染。土壤污染分成生物和非生物两大部分。生物的大多指土壤中的病菌,有害微生物,害虫。比如以前很多的猪肉绦虫,血吸虫等,土壤都是其生长环节之一,这种危害随着卫生水平的提高,逐渐淡出人们的注意。
非生物可以分为两部分,有机的和无机的。有机污染是人们造出来的,有名的比如苯并芘等,他们降解困难,如同塑料一样,但是具有更强的生物毒性,而且五花八门,难以估计其潜在的毒性。
无机的是人们放出来的,土壤中大部分组分对人体是无害的,即使那小部分的有毒元素,也因为浓度很低而很难造成危害。但是人们通过采矿的活动,把地底的各种重金属释放出来,进入人们的日常活动中,进而在地球表面沉积。当在他们的浓度超过安全线时,就会形成污染。未来也许会因此出现这样一副景象:在以城市和矿山为中心,出现一个重金属扩散带,干净地土壤不复存在。最可怕的是,这种污染如同泼出去的水一下,无法再收回来。不同于有机污染,加以时日,在生物和非生物的作用的,会有一天消失。土壤重金属污染的消失,除非地球进行强烈的地壳运动,把表层沉地地底。总有一天,我们将不得不把我们泼出去的水再收回来,其难度,可想而知。

The origin and spread of soil pollution

Let me add briefly by introducing what I know about soil pollution. Soil pollution can be divided into two parts: living and non-living. The living part, largely, refers to bacteria in the soil, tiny harmful lifeforms, and pests. For example, in the past, for a lot of tapeworms, schistosomes in pork meat etc., soil has been one of the key links to their growth. With the raising of the hygiene level, this kind of harmful material gradually works its way into people's attention. The non-living part can be further divided into two subcategories, organic and inorganic. Organic pollution is that created by people, such as benzopyrene etc., which degrades with difficulty, just like plastic. Yet there are things even more toxic to living beings, and they come in all shapes and sizes, so that it is hard to predict how toxic it might turn out to be. The inorganic is that released by people, and soil for the most part consists of things that are fundamentally harmless for people, even if the little part left over has toxic elements. Because the density is very low, it is very difficult for it to cause harm. Through mining activities, we release all kinds of underground metals from the ground, they enter into the daily lives of people and are deposited on the surface of the earth. As soon as their density passes a safe level, it constitutes pollution. In the future, because of this, perhaps there will appear this kind of scene: in places that have cities and mines as their centres, there will be a proliferation of metals and clean soil will no longer exist. The scariest thing is that this kind of pollution, once poured out like this into water, can no longer be recovered. This is unlike organic pollution, where time is needed, and with the use of non-living and living things, one day it will disappear. The disappearance of metal pollution in the soil will come as the surface of the planet moves underground, unless the earth itself instigates extremely strong crustal movement. Finally, one day, we will have no choice but to use again, to recycle, all the water we have poured out. With some difficulty, you can just imagine this.

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匿名 | Anonymous

做地好!

大家好!我非常喜欢浏览你们的网站!希望继续保持如此丰富的资源!致以我最好的祝福!
                   福兰克

Great work!

Hello!I enjoyed looking around Your web-site!Keep up this great resourse!With the best regards!
Frank

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

做的好

做的好!!!从这里我得到了很多信息!!!

well done

well done ! from it i found a lot of informations^^

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

写得好!

我在这儿寻获许多资讯。

good job

i find many imformation here

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

好见解

非常感谢你们给了我一个这么好的途径寻找关于污染的信息。

good idea

Thank you for giving me a so good way to find information about pollution.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

做得好!

很快可以变得更好。

Good work

It can be better soon.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

污染

民以食为天,食品安全本是老百姓最朴素、最根本的需求。但曾几何时,餐桌却成了最不安分的地方,毒大米、毒蔬菜的惊呼不绝于耳。随着中国土壤现状调查及污染防治项目的正式启动,土壤污染成为继水污染、大气污染、噪声污染和固体废物污染后,受到社会关注最多的污染问题之一。

土壤污染被称作“看不见的污染”,其他污染形式可以通过污水横流、黑烟滚滚、臭气熏天等外在表现形式向人们敲响警钟,而土壤污染却往往容易被人忽视,这种危害极大的污染就在这样的“温床”上趁机蔓延开来。

Invisible pollution

Food safety is a basic need for any population, yet we hear warnings of hidden dangers on the dining-room table – of unsafe rice and poisoned vegetables. With the launch of the China Soil Survey, pollution of our soil is now receiving the kind of attention once accorded to air and water, solid waste and noise.

Soil pollution has been called the “invisible pollution.” While other forms of pollution have obvious warning signs – visible contamination of a river, for example, or an airborne stench – soil pollution is easier to miss. And so this grave threat has been growing unnoticed in our fields