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Xiamen PX: a turning point?

Tang Hao

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The halting of a controversial petrochemical project in south China was a victory for people power, writes Tang Hao. Now the country should consider the reforms it needs to enshrine public participation in law.
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As ecological destruction makes an ever more significant impact on daily life in China, public participation in environmental protection has increased. The State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) has encouraged this trend, and regards participation as essential to solving environmental issues. In 2006 a document from China’s cabinet, the State Council, specified that public consultations must be held in cases when a project will have an impact on the public’s environmental interests. SEPA regulations state that participation is necessary for environmental impact assessments and that the publication of environmental information is a prerequisite. Many officials have offered support, verbal and written, for public participation in environmental protection.

Last month in the southern Chinese city of Xiamen (also known as Amoy), these words were put into practice. The provincial and municipal government reportedly bowed to public pressure and halted construction on a Taiwanese-invested paraxylene (PX) petrochemical plant. The project is now being moved to the southern Fujian city of Zhangzhou. Its opponents included white-collar workers, the elderly and housewives, who used a range of methods to express their opposition, from text-message campaigns, online protests, demonstrations at public hearings and letters written by academics, to marches though the streets.

This is generally considered a victory for public participation; the central government genuinely listened to environmental concerns and the Xiamen government worked to protect the city. More importantly, the events established a new type of activism, which focused on a single issue in order to change governmental habits and the law. For government officials, this will mean new rules on how they act. Cadres will be more careful to at least consider the environment. Green is a colour on the ascendant.

Outside China, the green movement has relied on public participation to grow, ultimately transforming the political sphere. The same thing seems to have happened in Xiamen. But the development of public participation in China is still unfinished, and it faces systematic obstacles. China’s environmental impact assessment law affirms the principle of public participation, but it does not lay out the process to achieve this, or regulate how government should handle public opinion. The public has no right to veto, leaving the oversight of major projects and the right to environmental information in something of a no man’s land.

These system failures have two consequences. First, they reduce the extent to which the public can participate in environmental issues. Currently, the public can only take part at a basic, everyday level. The government will encourage people to conserve water and power, but not participate at any higher level; non-governmental activity has no support. Second, the lack of public participation means the environmental crisis is allowed to continue. While the residents of Xiamen celebrate their win, other ecologically destructive projects are going ahead. Work is already underway on the eastern and central sections of the south-to-north water transfer. The project already has an opening date, but the public were not told when the work started, much less how it was approved. A nuclear plant at Rushan in Shandong has also been given the go-ahead without the consultation of the public or SEPA. Xiamen’s PX project is moving to Zhangzhou, but what do the city’s residents think of the impact there? Nobody knows. Unless the public is involved, these projects could cause major harm. A loan from the Agricultural Bank for 6.3 billion yuan (US$867 million), intended for the 10.08 billion yuan (US$1.4 billion) PX project, has been frozen – a loss that would not have been incurred if the public had been involved earlier. In other areas, projects have given rise to frequent complaints – and even “mass incidents”.

Public participation means breaking the government’s monopoly on power. This explains the current obstruction of environmental protection in China. The low-key approach to major projects and decisions betrays a lack of trust in public participation. But environmental problems do not disappear just because policy-makers ignore them. When problems become bad enough, the government is left with no choice but to respond. Great power brings great responsibility. If the government is all-powerful, it is also deemed responsible for all.

The power to make decisions on major projects should not lie with government alone, but with the public. The public will bear the consequences of any decisions made, so should not be left out of the decision-making process. Environmental awareness among the Chinese public is at an all-time high, in sharp contrast to the state of environmental governance. This leads to pressure for reform: a 2005 survey found that over 80% of Chinese citizens are aware of pollution, waste disposal and water treatment problems. There is an urgent desire for a clean, unpolluted environment.

With local governments pressing ahead with harmful projects, and the public ever less willing to accept them, Xiamen was a turning point. People want to participate, but they are coming up against systematic obstruction. An unprecedented victory in Xiamen, however, means that the public is no longer helpless; they are empowered to fight anti-environment forces. With the development of the economy and civil society, this power will only get stronger. Xiamen should not be seen as a single victory, but the start of a series of struggles. Environmental protection is not about individual wins. It is about reforms to stop these same problems arising again.

Government and business dominate environmental issues; people need stronger mechanisms to help them get involved. This will mean a switch in focus from single-issue campaigns to improvements in law and in government habits. And this requires the government and the people to work together. Mechanisms helping the interaction of the two need to be put in place as soon as possible. The government needs to stop participating as an interested party and become an arbitrator between different parties’ interests. They should publish environmental information for the benefit of the public, promote public-interest lawsuits on environmental issues and improve their relations with green NGOs, which will allow civil society to monitor environmental decision-making. At the same time, the public should keep up its determined, yet moderate, action. The public must learn how to apply maximum pressure in a calm fashion.

Turning awareness into action will always be a long and painful process, particularly in China. But the process is underway – and it shows no signs of letting up.


Tang Hao is a newspaper columnist, deputy editor of Shimin (Citizen) magazine, and assistant professor of politics at Huanan Normal University. His essays and opinion pieces have appeared in Contemporary International Relations, International Studies, Nanfang Daily, Yangcheng Evening News, Southern Window and many other publications.

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公众参与

厦门的这条消息鼓舞人心,但是中国有关公众参与的法律体系尽管在不断进步,但法律规范仍然模糊,法律的持续执行也无法真正得到保证。公众参与是一个制定政策的好办法,特别是在环境保护的问题上,然而我们每个人都必须清楚地知道我们这样做的意义,以及这样做对具体实施的法律制度所带来的的影响。SL

Public participation

Encouraging news from Xiamen, but it seems the legal framework for public participation in China, though ultimately progressive, is ill-defined and inconsistently enforced. Participation is a good way to make policy, particularly in the case of the environment, but everyone needs to be clear what we really mean by this, and that needs to be reflected by detailed legal frameworks, which need to be enforced. SL


价值的力量

如果中国的商业和政府的利益在环境问题上占优势地位,那么经济增长和公众利益之间就会上演持续的战斗。这样,厦门事件的胜利有可能最终导致与福建的一场新的争斗。这家石化工厂将继续搬迁,但却不是出于环境的利益。最好的解决办法是利用那些能在最小程度上损害环境并创造最大经济需求的非政府组织和个体的帮助。

正如文中提到,也许当政府找到接受公众建议的途径时,人们就可以表达他们对于环境事务的观点。这些观点能被大的机构来实施并有更广泛的影响力。“绿色”理念是一个公众事务,并越来越进入到信息科技的领域。并且随着短信息和网络的普及,公众很有可能有意识的就环境问题作出决策并且把厦门事件的胜利推向更广泛的层面。------TRS

Power of Value

If business and governmental interests in China take precedence on environmental issues, it will be a constant battle between economic growth vs. public values. The victory for Xiamen could ultimately be a new fight for Fujian. The plant will continue to be displaced, but never modifided for environmental benefit. The greatest solution would be utilizing help from NGO's and individuals who can maxamize economic needs under the conforms of a minimally disturbed environemt. As addressed in the article, perhaps when the government figures out a process to recieve public opinion, the means in which people can express their views on environmental issues can be practiced with greater organization and with stronger impact. "Green" thought is a public issue that become more and more infectious with the access to information technology; and with the explosion of text messaging and internet, hopefully the public will gain the awareness to make informed decisions about their environment and can take the Xiamen victory to a greater scale. TRS


人民的力量

很高兴看到厦门事件的胜利。环保决不是政府和组织机构的事务,更重要的是关系到人们群众的切身利益。

现在全国各地的环境都受到不同程度的污染,希望有越来越多的人愿意站出来维护大家的利益。只有更多的公众参与,我们才能拥有更洁净的环境。

Public Effort

I am pleased to see such a success in Xiamen. The environment is in no way part of the usual administrative order for the government, so it is important that people take action independently.

Now that every region in the country is being exposed to varying levels of pollution, I hope that more and more people will take a stand for the greater good. Only when there is an increased level of public participation, will we be able to achieve a cleaner environment.


如何提高公众的行动能力

如何提高公众的行动能力?组织化、信息传递、共识和共同行动的习惯,这些基础性的工作需要有人来做。

How to improve influence of the public?

How do we improve the influence of the public? The habit of getting organised, of sharing information and common knowledge, of acting in a united manner are the building blocks that need to be acted on.


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