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Dark water: coastal China on the brink (part one)

Ports are being deserted, schools closed and jobs lost as pollution ravages Jiangsu and Shandong. In the first of two reports, the Southern Metropolis Daily describes the death of the local fishing industry.
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The seas are dying. China’s coastline has become a massive dumping ground. The fish are vanishing; the water is becoming filthier by the day and the air is almost impossible to breathe. Areas that were once bustling and prosperous are now uninhabitable. The seaside towns of the east China provinces of Jiangsu and Shandong are being deserted. Ocean pollution ends up on our dinner tables through the salt we use, which is produced in coastal plants. The sea is becoming a danger zone. 

In July last year, Xu Fahai stocked up his fish farm on the Bohai Gulf with 600,000 young fish. This was the third time that Xu, 53, had ever had to restock the Zhaoyuan Bohai Fish Farm in Shandong province. He had previously added another 800,000 fish and over 36 million sea crabs. 

“The sea is not as full as it used to be,” says Xu, “there are no big fish left. Nowadays people even eat small fry and fish eggs. If we carry on like this, what will our children and grandchildren eat?” Xu’s livelihood depends on the sea, and it served him well in the past. He built up a good business, amassing tens of millions of yuan in assets. But now the Bohai Gulf – once known as “Heaven’s Fishery” – is almost bare. 

At Yangjiao fishing port in Shouguang, Shandong province, hundreds of fishing boats can be seen moored in a tributary of the Xiaoqing River, their Chinese flags blowing in the salty sea breeze. The town was once the Bohai Sea’s number-one fishing port. Wang Dayou, a local fisherman, takes a break from bashing a rivet with a heavy iron hammer to explain: “The fish market has almost closed down. If there aren’t any fish, what’s the point in having a market?” 

Shouguang lies west across the Laizhou Bay from Zhaoyuan, where Xu Fahai restocked his fish farm. Might the fish swim over to Shouguang? Wang is not optimistic. “Will they even get a chance to grow?” he wonders out loud. If they do manage to grow, Xu claims they will bring in over 37 million yuan (around US$5.3 million) for local fishermen. 

In June 2007 the provincial Maritime Fisheries Bureau confirmed there was severe pollution off the coast of Shandong. Laizhou Bay, Jiaozhou Bay, the southern Bohai Gulf and the mouth of the Yellow River were all highly polluted, the report said. The major pollutants were inorganic nitrates, lime phosphates and oil products. Coastal areas of the Bohai Gulf and Laizhou Bay were especially polluted, as were the mouths of the Yellow River, Xiaoqing River, and Zhangweixin River. Coastal plants that emit pollution into the sea are also pollution hotspots. This is why fishermen are worried the fish will not reach full size. 

Black water 

The village of Shuigou, in Wudi county, Shandong, is located at the mouth of the Zhangweixin River. More than 2,000 people in Shuigou rely on the sea for a living. “Before 1995, you could drink the water straight from the river,” deputy head of the village committee, Hou Baoyou, says. “Now even the crops reject it. If ducks or geese touch it, they die.” Fish from the sea lose their scales “at a touch”, says Hou. “When we fish them up in our nets, they are already dead.” Villagers fishing in the sea find their nets are almost too heavy to pull up. But they are not laden with fish; the nets are caked in black oil and rubbish. The white nets turn black as soon as they are cast. 

There are two clam beds in the county, each around 70 kilometres long. These were the largest, best-preserved clam beds in the world and a major breeding ground and winter habitat for migratory birds. They were also an important research centre for watching changes in the Yellow River, the coastline and local wetlands. But pollution has stopped the clams from growing and the beds are dead in all but name.  

The Xiaobotou water monitoring station in Wudi tested the mouth of the Zhangweixin River and found a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 159 milligrams per litre. This indicates severe pollution: for many years there has been too little oxygen in the water for aquatic life to survive. According to the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), most of the pollution in the Zhangweixin River comes from urban areas in the provinces of Henan, Hebei and Shandong. Eighty-two percent of the pollution comes from outside Shandong province. The rest comes from the two Shandong cities of Linqing and Dezhou. 

In the summer of 2006, Hou Baoyou took a group of about a dozen villagers to Xinji, near Huanghua in Hebei province, a town on the upper reaches of the Zhangweixin River. The group asked for the sluice gate at Xinji to be closed to help prevent polluted water from flowing down into Wudi county. Locals in Xinji called the police and a fight nearly broke out. The sluice gate remained open. “After that, all I could do to fish was to take my fleet of 18 fishing boats down to Lianyungang or Yancheng, in Jiangsu province,” says Hou. 

In the port of Yanwei, Lianyungang, fisherman Shan Haibing sits in a small house and chats to the local fishing bosses. “We’re still not catching anything,” he says. “Even if the fish come, we can’t catch them.” The small room smells of sweat and the sea. Four of the men are playing cards; the rest are drinking beer. The Yellow Sea is only a few metres from their building. Over 100 iron-hulled boats are moored in the narrow bay. A string of firecrackers lets off a rapid-fire burst of noise and a solitary boat heads out to sea. 

“What are you going out there for? You’re not going to catch anything!” Shan swigs his beer and yells towards the ocean. Although fishing has stopped, there are always a few brave ships heading out into the forbidding waters. “They’ll be lucky to catch a few tiny shrimp,” says Shan. 

The situation at Yanwei port is about as bad as in Shuigou. Five rivers, including the Guan River, Shu River and Yellow River all reach the sea here. Looking southwest during the summer wet season, river after river can be seen extending for tens of kilometres before joining the ocean. 

“It’s filthy,” Shan complains. “Most of the dirty water from Henan, Shandong, Anhui and Jiangsu flows past here and out to sea. In the past, one boat could bring in a 450,000 yuan income [around US$64,000]. Now that’s down to a few thousand. There are no fish or larger prawns to be caught, just a few small shrimp.” 

A man only identified by his surname, Chen, runs a small shop in Yanwei, where he shares nostalgic memories with his customers. “We used to send six or seven trucks full of seafood up to the port of Tianjin every day. From there, the catch would be sent on ships to Korea and Japan.” Ten years ago around this time of year he would have been getting calls from these countries placing orders. “We used to catch crabs and prawns mostly. A ship could catch around 350 to 400 kilograms a day.” Prawns were sold for between 1.4 to 1.6 yuan (US$0.19 to US$0.22) per kilogram. The price then went up to between four and six yuan, before rising to over 10 yuan. The prices have now reached several hundred yuan, but there is a severe lack of produce. Last year the prawn harvest for the whole of Yanwei port was less than 100 kilograms. 

The retreat from the coast 

The fishermen of Shuigou village are washing the dirty water from their legs for the last time and preparing to leave the sea behind. 

“I’ll probably go and do manual labour,” says Hou Baoyou, “the sea is too unreliable.” Once-vibrant fishing villages are being deserted as the trend of moving away from the coast spreads. Nowadays, seafood buyers from other regions are nowhere to be seen in Shuigou. Thousands of workers used to arrive from other parts of China, now the locals themselves are leaving for the town. 

The same thing is happening in Yanwei, hundreds of kilometres south. Local resident Wang Wenbin drives past Yanwei Middle School and looks towards the main entrance. His son was a pupil there, but he will not be going back next term, says Wang. The main teaching building has already been demolished; the rest of the grounds lie empty. The Yellow Sea is not far from the abandoned school; sometimes stormy, sometimes smooth as glass. The smell of the sea permeates the reed marshes; seabirds squawk and flap overhead. 

In 2007, many of the pupils at the school began to suffer dizziness. Some students – including Wang’s son – ended up in hospital. It was diagnosed that the children had been breathing toxic gases. 

That summer the school informed pupil they were being transferred to Guanxi Farm School, over 10 kilometres away. “I heard that the people who live here are going to be moved to a new residential compound,” says Wang. If they didn’t move, he says, the smell would be unbearable. Yanwei, once a busy town and home to over 10,000 people, may be about to disappear. 

Residents along the coast of northern Jiangsu province face the same worries. Zhou Wenchong, from Duigou village in Guannan county, has been sending mobile phone text messages to people from outside the area. They read: “What are we to do? Must we abandon our homes?” One night he couldn’t sleep and sent the message six times. 

If these coastal communities continue to disintegrate, an uninhabited zone will run along the coast from northern Jiangsu to Shandong. In the narrow coastal strip that runs for over 100 kilometres between Yancheng and Lianyungang, there may be nothing left but seagulls, reeds and sand. 

This article first appeared in the Southern Metropolis Daily. It was planned by Yu Chen and coordinated by Yu Chen and Nan Xianghong. The authors were Yu Chen, Lu Bin, Yang Chuanmin, Long Zhi, Li Jun and Han Fudong. It is translated and reproduced here with permission.

Homepage Photo by abadore

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

水产养殖

无须到中国去,我就知道那里将要发生一场灾难。只需用Google Earth就可以看到中国沿海地区的状况。毫无疑问,中国的鱼类养殖是如此之烈,江河和近海已经超出了自然的承载力。高密度的鱼虾养殖所产生的废物必定对海洋动植物造成灾难性的后果。只是我很想知道那里的空气质量如何。空气中的尿素含量是多少呢。

Fish Farming

I don't have to travel to China to see that it is a disaster waiting to happen. Just use Google Earth to see the coastal regions of China. The fish farming operation is so dense that there is no question the rivers and coastal areas are beyond what nature can support. All the waste products from the intensive fish and shrimp farming must have disastrous impact in the aquatic plants and animals. I just wonder what the air is like. How much urea is in the air.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

渔民的生活

2007年夏我们去连云港实习,一到海边,漫天的鱼腥味就把我这个在四川长大的从没见过海的人熏得够呛,之后,我又看到了港湾里破破烂烂的渔船,渔民被晒得黝黑的脸...这就是渔民的生活,一点也不像小学课本上对蓝蓝大海边生活的描述。其实渔民才是最“靠天吃饭”的,他们对大海无能为力,一旦近海被污染了,他们的生活就面临困境。还有,海水养殖的一次性投资很大,我在海上听船员讲他们村子里养殖紫菜的,一次性就要投资150万,一旦收成不好,就可能全部亏进去。海水污染越严重,养殖的风险就越大。
Loyi

The hardships of a fisherman's life in China

In the summer of 2007, we went to Lianyungang to intern. As soon as we got the coast of the city, we were hit with an unbearable, putrid fishy smell. Even having grown up in Sichuan, we had never come across such a smell. Afterwards, we caught sight of a rather ragged fishing boat along with it's sunburned crew. This is the reality of a fisherman's life, nothing resembling the idyllic scene described in children's books of life by the sea.

Because today's fishermen are so dependent on the sea for their livelihood, they're in a precarious position. Once the water becomes polluted, they become helpless. Still, initial development costs for aquaculture are huge.

I had the opportunity to talk with fishermen who were attempting to cultivate a form of edible purple seaweed and learned that the initial investment was approximately 1,500,000 Renminbi (£108,000 GBP). If a single crop fails, the entire operation fails. The more serious the water pollution, the more risky and unsustainable aquaculture becomes. --Loyi

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

谁来买单?

富人消费,穷人来承受污染。
究竟应该由谁来买单?

Who should pay for that?

The rich consume, the poor will assume pollution. Who should pay for that?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

我们的将来在哪里?

将来会发生什么?你们将来吃什么?谁为此负责?我不理解这些目光短浅的政府官员,他们牺牲了环境促进国家发展。这种行为会让我们将来的生活陷入危机。
一旦每个人都拥有了汽车,电视和公寓,我们将会意识到你无法以钱为食,更别提什么民族国家了。

丹尼尔

where will this lead?

What is going to happen in the future? What will people eat? Who is responsible for this? I do not understand the short sightedness of the government, they seem to be sacrificing the environment for the development of the country, which will make life unbearable in the future.
Once everybody has a car, TV and an apartment, we will realize that you can not eat money, let alone nationalism.

Daniel

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

我们还有多少水域可以污染

当越来越多的水域被污染,当越来越多的人们被迫离开故乡,我想我们再也无法承受如此的高昂的代价了

How much of China's water will be polluted?

With even more waters polluted and more inhabitants displaced, I think we can't afford to let the trend continue.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

水污染

在我們的課堂上 研究報導指出
中國的河川還有湖泊 有一半已經超出使用範圍的級數
水污染的指數分為五級 超過三級以上就不可以適合一班使用 更不用說那那些四級五級的河川還有湖泊了 這些污染的河川流入海中更造成海水污染 大家想想 數十條污染的河川污水流入海中 大家還會去買海水魚 還是到海岸邊遊玩嗎? 這些污染要花數十年過更久的時間 才能恢復 河川湖泊海岸的生態都已經被破壞光了大家希望我們的子孫只能能看到黑黑的海嗎?

Water pollution

Research finds that the water of half of China’s rivers and lakes is unsuitable for human consumption. The extent of water pollution is measured and categorized by five classes. Class three and beyond indicates the water is not suitable for general use. The polluted rivers flow into the sea, bringing the pollutants into the vast water area. So you can imagine the consequences of dozens of rivers feeding into the sea. Will anyone dare to eat seafood or bathe in the sea any more? It will probably take some decades or more for the rivers and lakes to recover from pollution. If we just sat on our hands and allowed the ecosystem along the banks and the shores to be damaged completely, we would only leave our children and grandchildren a stretch of dark, stinky seas.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

11月无鱼

让我们每次都在试图挽救海生物的努力上前进一点,
在每个十一月不要垂钓或吃鱼。

No Fish November

Let's save our marine life one bite at the time.
No eating fish or fishing for the month of November. Web site up soon.