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After catastophe, asking the right questions

A year of deadly disasters has tested the Chinese people, writes Tang Hao. From regulations on school buildings to emergency response mechanisms, there are important lessons to be learned.
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The year almost seems to have been designed to test the Chinese people; 2008 has been a year of disasters. We have seen blizzards, public disorder, deadly train crashes and an earthquake. In China, there is an air of solemnity and pain. Premier Wen Jiaobao addressed an elementary school in the Sichuan quake zone and described a process of rejuvenation through disaster, which would demonstrate the determination and spirit of the Chinese people.

If the nation can reflect on the causes of catastrophe and work to resolve them, if the people can retain their reason and hope in the face of tragedy, and if society can stick to its path despite these obstacles, then disaster can present an opportunity for rebirth. The best way to remember the people who were lost is to learn from the tragedy and undertake the reforms that are needed.

The first target of reform should be China's crisis management mechanism. Emergency response needs to become an everyday affair. Studying in the United Kingdom, I was impressed by the country’s disaster preparedness. It is actually very simple to keep people aware of potential risks. Buildings have fire safety and security information posted in prominent positions, often on a piece of paper that can be frequently updated. Fire drills are rehearsed frequently, even at 2am or 3am, with residents required to evacuate their buildings within minutes. And people take this seriously, even if it means getting out of bed and standing around in their nightclothes, in the freezing cold, waiting for the fire officers to confirm that the building is clear.

The more realistic the drills, the less damage will be done when disaster really strikes. The truth is that drills and regulations that otherwise seem useless do in fact strengthen the government's ability to handle crisis situations, and the ability of the public to cope. Ultimately, disaster response becomes an instinct. Students do not need their teacher to tell them to leave the building as soon as possible. But in China, where there is very rarely any training or information about earthquakes, people become relaxed and forget the dangers. This is one of the reasons why so many people were lost to the recent earthquake.

It is not enough to rely on the government to manage such grave disasters; all of society must mobilise. Tens of thousands of volunteers rushed to help in the quake-hit areas of Sichuan province, including doctors, lawyers, business leaders, migrant workers, students and even earthquake victims themselves. The public response was unprecedented, with volunteers making it to even the most remote mountain areas. But at the same time, there were clear consequences of a lack of government communication with NGOs. Volunteers’ working arrangements were confused, information was often incomplete or belated, local government did not know what to do with volunteers. One local official even indicated that volunteers were no longer welcome. The government does not know how to handle its relationship with NGOs. It feels they cause more harm than good and often chases them off. This is not what should be happening. The government should consider how to strengthen training and guidance for volunteers and improve its day-to-day management mechanisms for NGOs, linking them with the government’s crisis management systems and improving the government’s own abilities at the same time.

This heart-rending disaster should be a turning-point to reform mindsets that are overly focussed on economic development. More energy should be put into changing society.

For example, seismological surveying, which has an impact on the safety of the people, has suffered from a one-sided pursuit of economic development. Just days before the earthquake, a survey station in Beijing was flattened to make way for the property developers. There is not enough scientific research being carried out. Days before the disaster, most of the information on the website for the seismological authorities in the quake zone related to travel and local politics. Not one document was relevant to predicting earthquakes. After the May 12 earthquake – as much as after the 1976 Tangshan earthquake – it is important to reform seismology, doing away with bureaucracy and rebuilding the relationship between experts, government and the public.

That the quake had such a devastating impact is related to a number of systematic failings in government oversight, education and standards for public buildings. Seven thousand school buildings collapsed. One thousand students were killed at Beichuan middle school alone. Over a dozen classes were buried at Dujiangyan’s Jiyuan middle school. Several hundred were killed in collapsed classrooms at Yangxiu elementary school in Wenchuan. This is in sharp contrast to five “Project Hope” schools nearby, which were left standing, with even the windows intact. The reason is simple: the donors who funded those schools kept a close eye on the building process, making sure no corners were cut and building standards were met. School collapses and poor building quality are old news in China. Well-built schools are a rarity, and that is the greatest tragedy. Problems occur in the building process, the supervision process and even at the design stage. Teachers did risk their own lives to save their pupils, but how many can they be expected to rescue? And should we expect teachers to sacrifice themselves to remedy the failings of the system?

The most important measure for preventing earthquake damage, therefore, is simple: construct better buildings. And if we want to have better construction, we need a comprehensive reform of the system. People say we should strengthen the standards for school buildings, but how can we achieve this unless we bolster the system that enforces those standards? We need to take this opportunity to alter the system which is only concerned with the health of the economy, rather than the environment and safety of its people.

When Phoenix TV anchor Zeng Zimo interviewed a guest who had predicted the 1976 Tangshan earthquake, she said, “If a nation can admit its weaknesses, there will be progress. If a person can admit their mistakes, there is hope.” The Kobe earthquake in Japan in 1995 also killed many people and revealed failings in disaster preparedness, leading to investigations and reform. Subsequent earthquakes in Japan have not caused the same scale of destruction.

Disasters do not lead to improvements in themselves, but they can raise awareness and encourage reform. They signal something important to the survivors and force us to ask important questions. How can we ensure our schools are well-built and punish those responsible for poor-quality buildings? How can we maintain the media’s quick and efficient reporting and protect the public’s right to know? How can we ensure that donations are used transparently and prevent the abuse of the public’s generosity? After all, how would we face the victims if no lessons had been learned by their deaths?

Tang Hao is a newspaper columnist, deputy editor of Shimin (Citizen) magazine, and assistant professor of politics at Huanan Normal University. His essays and opinion pieces have appeared in Contemporary International Relations, International Studies, Nanfang Daily, Yangcheng Evening News, Southern Window and many other publications.

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

气愤!

四川媒体竟然说房屋倒塌中的建筑质量问题无法鉴定,都是地震波惹的祸,真是掩耳盗铃!我明明看到很多废墟中露出的钢筋是不合格的。

I feel angry

Sichuan media claimed that the quality of collapsed buildings could not be evaluated, as the collopse was caused by seismic waves. This is totally untrue. I have seen those steel bars in the ruins. Many of them are substandard.
(Comment translated by Zhou Chen)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

理解

其实 地震来了 倒塌了很多的学校教学楼 在气愤的同时 我们也要心存理解和包容 毕竟有些地方财政实在是没有钱可以拿来修盖可以抵抗八级地震的教学楼 我们中学以下实行的是义务教育 有些学校在能维持教学 让孩子们有书读 已经很用心了 但是 还是要从中学到教训 让其他地方引以为戒 这样的事情 以后都不要再发生了 让学校成为最安全的地方 在地震来临的时候 可以成为民众的避难所

Understand

In fact when the earthquake came it knocked down a lot of school buildings. Whilst being incensed we should at the same time do our best to understand and forgive. After all some places public finances just do not have the money to build Richter scale 8 proof school buildings. Our Middle schools implement compulsory education and the ability of some schools just to maintain teaching and enable children to have books to study is already an achievement. However, we must still learn from the lessons of the middle schools and enable other areas to draw a lesson. This kind of incident must not happen again. We should make schools become safe places so that when earthquakes threaten they can become the people’s refuge centres.

Translated by Mike

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

危险并未过去

地震死亡人数如此众多,建筑倒塌得如此诡异,不仅仅是天灾的原因。但追究责任、体制改革等杜绝“人祸”的必要举措看来至今还没有真正落实,这是否意味着:如果再有同样类型的灾难的话,我们还是要经历这样大的痛苦?

The danger has not passed yet

The fact that so many people died and the buildings fell bizarrely from the earthquake indicate this is not only a natural disaster but an anthropogenic one as well. But it seems that necessary measures to seek individuals and institutions that were responsible (for the faults) have not been taken. Does this mean we have to experience the same pain if disasters of a similar type happen again?

LXie

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

放下过去向前看

人应该向前看,从经验中汲取教训,我同意这一观点。但是,只有当你了解事情的经过原委之后才能做到放下过去。我想我必须指出,倒塌的中学教学楼中有一些并非位于贫困地区。这些教学楼本应按照更高的标准建造。了解事故发生的原因,确定这些问题已被解决,才能够令那些受到地震影响的人们感到宽慰。谁能介绍一下,目前在调查事故原因方面取得了什么进展?
(该评论由Zhou Chen翻译)

When to forgive

You have to move on eventually and learn from experience, i agree with that. However, you can only start to forgive when you know what has happened and why.I do feel i have to add that some of these middle schools were not in areas of poverty and were in places where better standards of construction would be expected. I think a source of comfort for those that are affected is to understand how it happened and as comment 2 says that changes are made. Can anyone outline what is being done to find out what happened and why?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

调查的结果?

现在看起来,调查进展缓慢,迄今并没有人为劣质建筑负责或者有这种迹象.而随着重建的进行,很多证据都将湮没.

Investigation results?

The progress of investigation is currently at a slow pace. Until now, no one has been held responsible for inferior construction work. With new construction work, lots of evidence will be buried.(Comment translated by Siew Ling)