文章 Articles

Which way China?

Dongtan, the world’s first eco-city, is leading the way in urban sustainability. Herbert Girardet hails a pioneering project – planned for Chongming island, near Shanghai -- which could provide a template for future urban design.
Article image

China is a civilisation with a 5,000-year history of ever-growing inventiveness and refinement. From 600 until 1500 CE, it was the world’s most scientifically and technologically advanced society. It led the way in astronomy, mathematics, medicine, pottery and plant breeding. It invented the magnetic compass, gunpowder, cast iron, papermaking and printing. It alternated between being a closed, inward-looking society and a very open one that sought to link up with other civilisations.

China also built the largest and most spectacular cities before the modern era, with Beijing’s population reaching 2 million as long ago as the 17th century. However, it also continued to be a land of villages and farmers. Under Mao, this trend was strongly emphasised and China became a champion of village industries, collective farms and local self-sufficiency.

All that changed after Mao’s death. In 1978 Deng Xiaoping launched China on the “Open Door Policy”, focusing on rapid economic growth, a new role for markets, investment from the west and foreign trade. The world has watched in fascination and trepidation ever since, as pictures of vast factories and gleaming skyscrapers hit our television screens. Twenty-five years ago there was hardly any foreign investment, but by 2003 it amounted to US$680 billion. In a quarter of a century, China’s gross domestic product increased tenfold, from US$147 billion to over US$1.4 trillion. Its foreign trade grew more than forty-fold, from US$20.5 billion to US$850 billion.

But while China’s decision to industrialise and to urbanise has translated into a booming economy -- with western-style consumerism spreading across the country -- it has also generated major pollution problems. Sulphur and nitrogen oxides have turned China’s air into smog, and urban sewage, fertiliser run-off from farms and industrial chemicals are poisoning its rivers. There is also an increasingly global dimension: with one new coal-fired power station being built every week, and with China’s car production now nudging up to that of Japan, its CO2 emissions are catching up with those of the US. However, China seems to be learning the lessons of the limits to growth a lot more quickly.

When President Hu Jintao took over in 2003, searching questions began to be asked about the trajectory of China’s development. Since then a new policy emphasis on “harmony between humanity and nature” and on building “a conservation-oriented and environment-friendly society” has emerged. In recent speeches, Chinese leaders have insisted that “economic development must consider its impact on the environment and on society”.

There is growing evidence that these messages are increasingly informing the decisions of government officials and planners. One significant development is that the Shanghai Industrial Investment Corporation (SIIC) has commissioned the world’s first purpose-built eco-city -- Dongtan. It will be built on Chongming island in the Yangtze River delta on an area three-quarters of the size of Manhattan island - 86 square kilometers. By 2010 it will be a city of 25,000 people; by 2030 the population will reach some 500,000. It is designed to be a beautiful and truly sustainable city with a minimal ecological footprint. The goal is to use Dongtan as a template for future urban design. As China is planning to build no less than 400 new cities in the next 20 years, Dongtan’s success is of crucial importance.

I have had the privilege to be working as a consultant on the Dongtan project with the global engineering and design consultancy Arup. The first phase of Dongtan Eco-City is conceived as a town consisting of three compact, pedestrian “villages”, each with its own distinct character. The city will then continue to grow as a collection of towns connected by cycle routes and public transport corridors, allowing inhabitants access to different parts of the city by tram, bus and bicycle, as well as on foot. The aim is to ensure that people will have to walk for no more than seven minutes from any part of the city to reach a bus or tram stop.

Dongtan’s design is based on the principle that all its citizens can be in close contact with green open spaces, lakes and canals. Its buildings will be highly energy-efficient, and the city will be largely powered by renewable energy -- the wind, the sun and biomass.

Most of Dongtan’s waste output will be recycled and composted. The bulk of its organic wastes will be returned to the local farmland to help assure its long-term fertility and its capacity to produce much of the city’s food needs. Chongming’s existing local farming and fishing communities will have significant new marketing opportunities with the development of Dongtan, ensuring a high degree of local food self-sufficiency and enhancing the island’s long-term environmental and social sustainability at the same time.

Ironically, Dongtan is being built on an island in the Yangtze delta that is in itself a product of environmental catastrophe. In the last 50 years, Chongming island has become the world’s largest alluvial island, doubling in size, due to eroding soil from deforestation washing down in the headwaters of the river Yangtze. Chongming has grown from 600 square kilometers in 1950 to 1,290 square kilometers today.

One reason for the decision to create a new city of minimal environmental impact on Chongming island is the existence of a huge wetland area on the southern part of the island, which is a reserve for migrating birds and the largest of its kind in China. The wetlands will be preserved and will provide a strong visitor attraction. Vegetation from the wetland reserve will also permeate Dongtan, assuring that it becomes part of the island's natural habitat rather than a barrier to it.

With Dongtan, a sustainable future is not some distant dream, but a vision that is actually being realised. The strategy for Dongtan Eco-City is for it to be developed in several stages in the next 30 to 40 years. A tunnel and bridge, linking Chongming island to Shanghai, are already under construction. In 2010 Shanghai will host the World Expo, and the completion of the first phase of Dongtan will demonstrate that environmental sustainability and access to nature are very much part of new development in China.

Dongtan is a local project with a global perspective, designed to ensure that China will play a key role in the emergence of a world of ecologically and economically sustainable human settlements. It is becoming clear that the planet will not be able to cope if 1.3 billion Chinese and 1.2 billion Indians behave in the same way as only a few hundred million people have done so far: extracting resources, consuming and polluting. As high-population countries such as China and India catch up with Europe, North America, Japan and Australia, worldwide sustainable development is the only way to go.

Dongtan is intended to set an example. It will be a pioneering eco-city that could become a blueprint for sustainable urban development, in China itself and elsewhere in the world. It holds a promise of a high-efficiency, small-footprint urban design. By 2010, Dongtan will be a compelling model for how to build sustainable cities worldwide that may well be too persuasive to ignore.

Homepage photo by Yakobusan

The author: Herbert Girardet is author of Cities, People, Planet and chairman of Schumacher UK. Dongtan Eco-City, edited by Zhao Yan, Herbert Girardet et al., was published by Arup and SIIC in February 2006.

Reprinted with permission from Resurgence magazine www.resurgence.org 

Now more than ever…

chinadialogue is at the heart of the battle for truth on climate change and its challenges at this critical time.

Our readers are valued by us and now, for the first time, we are asking for your support to help maintain the rigorous, honest reporting and analysis on climate change that you value in a 'post-truth' era.

Support chinadialogue

发表评论 Post a comment

评论通过管理员审核后翻译成中文或英文。 最大字符 1200。

Comments are translated into either Chinese or English after being moderated. Maximum characters 1200.

评论 comments

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

一切为了未来

我认为发展此类城市的倡议是很好的,这些想法需要大规模地实施,需要对计划进行改变来适应现实,从而变成一种标准。抱怨现在建造城市的机器设备不够环保不是什么坏事。一旦有一天这些理念在公众心目中骤变,这些机器也会改变的。你不可能一夜间就改变世界,但只要我们为着同一个目标努力,最终我们会梦想成真。

It's all about the future

I think the initiative to develop this kind of city is admirable these thoughts need to be implemented on a larger scale and the scemes converted to suit the existing building stock in order to become a standard. It's all well and fine to complain about the machines building the city not being ecofriendly. They might become some day in the near future once some of these concepts has begun to swing amongst the general public. You cannot change the world overnight, but if all works towards a common goal we will get there eventually.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

我认为会有效

如果有足够多的人尝试,那这个事情就会有成功的可能。

I think this will work.

If enough people try, then it will eventually be done.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

这有可能成为事实

在现有城市加大投资力度以改善其基础设施的生态环境是值得讨论的。然而,东滩这一创新性的观念也为建立这种类型的生态城市的可行性提供了有用的范例。都市化趋向愈演愈烈,投资新城市以供人民居住,这似乎是可行的。我也同意,确保东滩生态城的成功,东滩民众责无旁贷。当前,从这点看来,目睹此项工程成功确实鼓舞人心。

It Could Happen

It is a valid point to argue that more investment should be made in improving the environmental friendliness of infrastructure in existing cities. However, Dongstan is an innovative concept and it will be a useful model to evaluate whether this type of eco-city is feasible. With such an ongoing trend of urbanization, it seems possible to invest in new cities for people to inhabit. I also agree that it will be largely up to the residents of Dongstan to ensure eco-friendly success. At this point in time, it would be really encouraging to see this project succeed.

Mike P.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

存一点怀疑

有趣的很,我看得出大部分的回复可以归为两类。一部分人持怀疑态度,感觉这不过是官僚主义体制下的梦想。另一部分人对之抱有希望,相信这样的事情一定会发生,并且尝试一下也没有坏处。对这两类观点我都能理解。一方面,中国政府说了许多,但真正做的很少。例如,半年前我读到一篇文章,说中共要认真保护知识产权,但我现在仍能够以25美分每片的价格购买DVD碟片以及最新技术的廉价仿制品。因此我能理解为什么中国政府许诺某件事的时候人们会不屑一顾。另一方面,我们开始提出可持续生活的方式,如果这是迈向理解正确做事的第一步,我们也许应当尝试一下。即便结果失败了,至少我们可以从中学到些东西。正如作者所说,中国和印度的人口太多了,以至于全世界不能都享受奢侈的生活方式。希望东滩项目能够成功,并为我们提供一个可供模仿的范例。

Skepticism

I think it is interesting that the majority of the responses fall into one of two general categories. Some are very skeptical, feeling that this is just a bureaucratic dream. The others tend to be hopeful, believing that something like this is bound to happen and it cannot hurt to try. I can understand both points of view. On the one hand, the government says many things, few of which are actually carried out. For example, six months ago I read an article about how the CCP was going to seriously enforce intellectual property rights, but I can still buy 25 cent DVDs and cheap imitations of the latest technology. So I understand why people scoff when the government says it will do things. On the other hand, we are going to have to start figuring out ways to live sustainability and if this city is a step toward understanding how to do that, then we might as well try. Even if it is a spectacular failure, at least we can learn something from it. As the author said, there are too many people in China and India for the entire world to try to live lavish lifestyles. Hopefully this Dongtan will succeed and provide an example that we all can try to emulate.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

谁在骗谁?

外国公司拿中国的银子实践他们的技术(顺便捞一把),政府满足了虚荣心,斗升小民们看了个热闹。

不过这样的建筑有意义吗?中国这个大工地上每天新建的无数建筑物里,有多少稍微考虑了一下对环境的影响?建了又拆,拆了又建,sustainable design何在啊?

换个角度说,搞这样的工程,可曾有益于中国的建筑设计水平和相关的技术发展?都是老外的东西罢了。实践实践,都是人家在搞,我们掏钱买单看个热闹。

Who are they kidding?

Foreign companies take Chinese money to practice their skills (and rake in the profits while they're at it), the government is satisfied with its vanity and the people watch it for entertainment.

Is there any significance for these kind of buildings? China is a big construction site, that builds a countless number of buildings each day, how often is environmental impact taken into account? They build and demolish, demolish and build again. Where is the so called sustainable design?

Looking at it from another point of view, a project like this, could it have been beneficial to China's level of construction design and related technological development? All of it comes from the foreigners. All these practices are carried out by them, and we are paying them money to see this.