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Go green, in death as in life

China is advocating environmentally friendly funerals, but most people still prefer traditional burial ceremonies. Cultural change cannot be forced, writes Huo Weiya, but awareness can be raised.

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A new type of funeral – the “ecological funeral” – is being advocated by China’s government and media, with suitable memorial parks established in many areas.

Ecological funerals refer to new “tree funerals”, “flower funerals”, “grass funerals” and “water funerals”. In the first three types, the ashes of the deceased person are spread on earth in which trees, flowers or grass is planted. In water funerals, the ashes are scattered over a river or the sea.

Such funerals represent China’s second reform of funeral customs. In the first reform, cremation replaced burials. Now the ashes are not retained, but are returned to nature.

Traditionally, burial was the main form of funeral in China. But in 1956, 151 senior officials -- including Mao Zedong, Zhu De, Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping, signed a document calling for the use of cremation. In 1985 the State Council published regulations stipulating that cremation should be carried out in areas that are densely populated or lacking in arable land, with punishments for public officials who did not comply. Cremation then became the most common form of funeral, with the deceased’s ashes stored in one form of memorial or another.

In China, 100,000
mu of land – nearly 70 square kilometres -- are used every year for those memorials, along with large quantities of bricks, concrete and marble. And these figures are expanding. The land used is not replaced, and we are faced with the dead and the living competing for space.

The ashes of Zhou Enlai were scattered in the air over Beijing, the Miyun reservoir and the Hai and Yellow Rivers in 1976. Deng Xiaoping’s ashes were scattered over the sea in 1997. Both of these ceremonies can be considered water funerals.

In many ways, these ecological funerals meet the needs of the times, especially in our cities. The Chinese population is getting older faster, and there is a shortage of land, so there is a risk of having nowhere to build traditional cemeteries. With the Chinese tradition of lavish funeral ceremonies, burial costs are spiralling. In some cases, a funeral can cost more than a house, and people speak of being able to afford to live, but not to die. A recent case exposed by China Central Television (CCTV) -- of a village official in Guangdong who felled 24
mu (16,000 square metres) of forest to create a luxury cemetery -- highlights the environmental dangers of these traditions.

Ecological funerals use little or no land. What they do use is not covered with a gravestone, but with plants. As it happens, China’s Tomb-Sweeping Festival – when relatives of the deceased visit and maintain graves and memorials -- fell in April, just as plants are growing and flowering. Memorial parks will double as green spaces.


Popularising this practice would save both costs and land, and increase the amount of green space.

Despite all this, however, many media reports published after this year’s Tomb-Sweeping Festival showed that only a minority of people choose ecological funerals.

The Chinese people traditionally plant trees beside graves, particularly in rural areas. The tree is believed to host the spirit of the departed, and the death of one of these trees is seen as a bad omen. The same worries are expressed about tree, flower and grass funerals. There is even less acceptance of water funerals. Many people feel that there is nowhere for the bereaved to focus their grief.


“The old burial practices have existed for thousands of years. You can’t replace them overnight,” says Zhu Huamin, head of the Shanghai Burial Culture Institute. “I think for some time to come, ecological funerals will only be accepted by some people.”


Attachment to the idea of traditional funerals is the greatest current obstacle to ecological funerals in China. Despite the earlier reforms, cremation still is not accepted in rural areas, and 50% of Chinese funerals involve burial. The success or failure of this second round of reform rests on changing those deep-rooted cultural beliefs.

The government has no specific regulations on ecological funerals. In April the Legal Daily reported that the drafting of the Funeral Management Regulations, first published in 2007, is due to be completed this year. According to Di Yingqi, a representative in the National People’s Congress, the draft doesn’t mention ecological funerals.

In order to meet targets during the earlier reforms, local governments attempted to make cremation compulsory, but to little effect. Burials took place in secret, and corruption resulted, especially in rural areas. Di argues that a funeral law should be drafted, providing for a range of funeral styles.

Both the current financial crisis and China’s long-standing sustainable development strategy require a shift to the environmentally friendly in the economic, social and cultural sectors. Funeral practices are no different, but using legal and administrative measures to do so will have little effect, at best. You cannot force cultural changes. It is not a matter of law and institutions, but of raising environmental awareness among the people. Then will choose more environmentally friendly ways of life – and death -- of their own accord.



Huo Weiya is operations and development manager for chinadialogue in Beijing and former editor-in-chief ofEnvironmental Culture Newsletter, published by Green Student Forum, an environmental NGO established in 1996.

What are your views? Do you support environmentally friendly funerals, or do you prefer traditional burials? Are young people more open to new forms of funeral ceremony? Do concessions to customs need to be made, given the conflicting demands on available land? Let us know on the forum what you think.

 Homepage photo by hunangov

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

有个疑问

我不太理解,为什么中国人有着”入土为安“的传统观念?又为什么害怕”死无葬身之地“?虽然我也是中国人,但我却想不通,希望有哪位能帮我解释一下,多谢。
Monica

I have a question

I don't really understand why China has the traditional concept of "buried and at peace" (RIP). Also, why should people be afraid to "die without a burial site?" Although I too am Chinese, I nevertheless do not understand this. I would be grateful if someone could explain this for me.
Translated by Afra Tucker

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

从传统中找依据

其实在中国的少数民族中并不缺乏生态葬文化习俗,如藏族的天葬和水葬,彝族的火葬,鄂伦春族的树葬等等。

Finding evidences from traditions

Actually, ecological funerals are not rare in the traditions of minority ethnic groups in China, such as Tibetan’s sky burials and water funerals, Yi’s fire funerals, Oreqen’s tree funerals and so on.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

灰变钻

5月29日于香港举行的本年度亚洲殡葬博览会推出了一种新型的殡葬方式。一项出自瑞士的技术能够以模仿自然界钻石生成的方式癣骨灰转化生成钻石。这是通过将骨灰中的碳质抽出后放于高温高压中而生成。用挚亲的骨灰制成的钻石来纪念他们实际上更为方便,因为维护一颗钻石要比维护一个墓址便易得多。将钻石一代一代传下去也要容易得多,作些能鼓励中国人的孝顺的核心品德。将钻石留在身边也很容易,从情感上着眼,这也有助于让活着的人感受到其与亲人的亲近。骨灰制钻石应视为是另一个殡葬方式。

由Ming Li翻译

Ashes to Diamonds

There is a new way of burial that was recently launched in Hong Kong during the annual Asia Funeral Expo in May 2009. A technology from Switzerland is able to convert ashes to diamonds by simulating natural way of diamond formation. This is done by extracting the carbon content of from the ashes and then put the carbon through high pressure and high temperature.

Commemorating a loved one with a diamond from their ashes is physically convenient as it is easier to maintain a diamond then a burial site. It is also easier to pass a diamond from one generation to another, thereby encouraging th chinese core virtue of filial peity.

As it is also easy to keep a diamond close physically, from the emotional standpoint it helps the living to feel physically close to their loved ones.

Ashes to diamonds should be viewed as another way of burials options.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

关于天葬

前天听到一个身为藏学博士的西藏人说,现在西藏选择天葬的人原来越少,他说一些在东部上大学的学生被改变了观念,认为天葬是残忍的,不文明的,所以他们回去以后也带着这样的观念,也传播这样的观念。但是他又说,由于选择天葬的人越来越少,西藏的秃鹫数量在减少,因为没有足够的食物。他说佛教中,释迦牟尼其实并没有天葬的主张,他猜测可能是后来的高僧认为天葬有利于生态,传播了天葬的合理性。

Regarding sky burials

The day before yesterday, I heard a Tibetan with a Ph.D in Tibetan studies say there are less people in Tibet who choose sky burials today than there were in the past. He said some Tibetan students who study at colleges in eastern China change their thoughts about sky burials, coming to see them as bloody and uncivilized. Thus, after they return home with these new conceptions, they propagate them. But he also said that because there are less and less people who choose sky burials, there are fewer bald eagles in Tibet, due to there being less food. He also said that in the Buddhist tradition, Siddhartha Gautama did not actually advocate for sky burials. He speculated that some time later, there was a senior monk who believed sky burials were ecologically beneficial, and thus propagated his rationality.(trans. Jerry Stewart)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

殡葬

中国要实行殡葬改革,要既环保有科学。应该取火葬场,不要推行火葬,实行绿色土葬,不留坟堆,不留碑刻等一切人文痕迹。让人悄悄地来,静静的走,这不是更好吗?还应规定每个人的殡葬消费不得超过300元(人民币)。

Funerals

If China wants to carry out burial reforms, they should be both environmentally friendly and scientific. Crematoriums should be gotten rid of, cremation should not be encouraged. There should be green burials: no burial mound, no engraved tombstone or any other trace of humanity. Let people come quietly and go peacefully - isn't that a better way? There should be a regulation that expenses for each person's funeral must not exceed 300 yuan (RMB).

Translated by Tiffany Gray