文章 Articles

A sustainable path for Nepal

How can a developing country make sustainability a part of its political constitution? Just over a year since Nepal was declared a republic, Gagan Thapa and Kashish Das Shresth address the country’s need for action on climate change.

Article image

It has been little over a year since Nepal was declared a democratic republic; the burden of responsibilities weighs more now than ever on the country’s policy-makers. Throughout this time, the conversation among the framers of Nepal’s new constitution has been predominantly – and rightly – about delivering people’s aspirations: principally, social justice and development. One is not possible with the other, and Nepal’s policy-makers must also consider the implications of their relationships with the environment and sustainability. To not also consider all of these issues would seriously undermine the longevity of the policies Nepal hopes to draft into its new constitution.

Our natural environment and the changes it experiences are the defining issues of the era. Environmental problems not only affect Nepal’s poor and marginalised, but every Nepali. The policies that we create to safeguard our environment are at the core of Nepal’s ambition to deliver social justice and development. However, they are not given the attention required by policymakers.

Issues surrounding food security, health, land use and development are all directly linked to climate change. Reports say that developing nations will be hit hardest by climate change. And even within poor countries like Nepal, the poorest and most marginalised communities will be the worst affected. This is a problem that we have inherited and will hand down to future generations – with added “interest” – if immediate action is not taken to address environmental concerns.  

Let us look at the topics that are the most important for social justice: rights to food, good health, land and a home. Until the 1970s, Nepal was self-sufficient in its food production and supply. But today – for various reasons, including population growth and mismanagement of resources food insecurity is a chronic problem in Nepal. Last year’s food crisis led to protests, riots and strict food export policies in countries around the world. Subsequent reports have raised concerns that unless we pay attention to climate change, it will cause further havoc for our food supply.  

Nepal also cannot address climate change and food security without considering land-use policies. The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) has reported that agriculture not only provides livelihoods to more than half of the world’s poorest people, but also accounts for 14% of the world’s greenhouse-gas emissions; while land-use change, such as forest loss, contributes 19%. Half of these agricultural emissions and 80 % of land-use change and forestry emissions come from developing countries. Clearing the forests for food growth and land distribution is not an option, as forests are one of the most important elements in preserving the environment. In fact, Nepal needs to actively restore some of its lost forest vegetation. 

Scientific reports increasingly relate climate change with health issues: a study by the Global Humanitarian Forum estimated last month that climate change kills 315,000 and seriously 325 million people every year. By 2030, the number of people killed could rise to 500,000 and 10% of the world's population could be affected. Countries like Nepal will be among the hardest hit.

Sources of energy are, of course, crucial to development, but burning fossil fuels and firewood have disastrous long-term effects on the environment, and large hydropower projects have ecological implications, too. This is an intergenerational problem that requires consistent and cohesive intergenerational solutions. So, how does Nepal move ahead? The country could either take the traditional path that prioritises development over other concerns, such as the environment: the prevailing view among the political leadership. Or we could transition to sustainable development.  

Sustainable development is a path that ensures all development activities cause the least amount of harm to our environment, and includes the responsibilities of mitigating, and adapting to, climate change. But this is a cause that Nepal cannot work towards on its own; developing countries must help Nepal.

In the build-up to the Copenhagen climate-change conference in December, a proposal submitted by Mexico has picked up steam. Mexico argues for the establishment of a “green fund”, designed specifically to help countries like Nepal develop in a sustainable way, not only by providing money, but also with much-needed technical expertise. Such programmes will have global repercussions, and can help Nepal to set an example among industrialising countries by taking an alternative development path.

The environment must be made a crucial part of current policy-making conversations; simply adding a few environmental policies is not enough. Policy-makers must understand the importance of implementation. With the constitution as the legal framework, Nepal must work towards a sustainable socio-economic development agenda. Climate change is an intergenerational problem and Nepal’s constitution is an intergenerational guideline. Nepal must not fail to draft a constitution that addresses the most pressing problem of the coming decades. Domestically, Nepal requires a renewed and urgent understanding of the relationship between social justice, development and environmental sustainability. Multilaterally, Nepal needs an unflinching commitment of help to address climate change from countries that contributed the most to creating the problem. The international community must press Nepal to deliver on its goals in a sustainable manner; and it is their fundamental duty to support the country in that process.


Gagan Thapa is a member of the Fundamental Rights Committee of Nepal’s Constituent Assembly

Kashish Das Shresth is director of 350 Nepal

An earlier version of this article was published by the Kathmandu Post on June 5, 2009.

Homepage photo by dul_conte

发表评论 Post a comment

评论通过管理员审核后翻译成中文或英文。 最大字符 1200。

Comments are translated into either Chinese or English after being moderated. Maximum characters 1200.

评论 comments

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

好文章

这篇文章写得很中肯,希望尼泊尔的决策者们能够考虑到这些建议,重视环境保护。

Good Article

This article is very pertinent. I hope Nepal's policymakers are able to think over these suggestions and attach more importance to environmental protection. (trans. Jerry Stewart)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

任重道远

尼泊尔的可持续之路任重道远,不仅尼泊尔本国人,全世界都有责任保护这个国家珍贵而奇特的地貌和生态环境。呼吁旅游者、登山者同样重视环保,减少对这个国家资源的消耗和浪费。

A long and burdensome road

Nepal's road of sustainability development may be long and burdensome. It's not only the people of Nepal who have the responsibility to protect the country's precious and peculiar geological landforms and ecosystems, but also people around the world. I call on travelers and climbers to place equal importance on environmental protection, to reduce the consumption and waste of Nepal's natural resources. (trans. Jerry Stewart)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

基金不能解决所有问题

绿色基金并不能解决所有问题,对于尼泊尔这样的森林资源丰富的国家,做好森林可持续管理的文章,才是适应危机的关键!yfy

Funds cannot solve all problems

A green fund cannot solve all problems. As for Nepal, a country that is so rich in forest resources, sustainable forest management is the key to adapt to the crisis! yfy
Translated by Jennifer Yip

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

支持墨西哥的提案

对于尼泊尔、不丹这样生态良好、又面临着解决民生的发展任务的发展中国家,绝对不能走一条以环境换增长的道路。要保住它们的“绿色”,国际社会有责任去提供一些帮助,不管是资金、技术、人力资源培训,还是正确发展理念的宣传和推广等。

Support the Mexican Proposal

As for the developing countries having sound ecological environments while tackling their own social issues (such as Nepal and Bhutan), they should not trade in the environment for economic growth. To protect the green environment, the international community shall bear the responsibility of providing aids. The aids can be capital, technology, human resources training, or the publicity and promotion of the concept of proper development.

Translated by Jennifer Yip