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China’s bag ban, one year later


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In an effort to reduce “white pollution”, the country restricted the sale, distribution and manufacture of flimsy plastic sacks. Is the effort working? chinadialogue joined the discussion in Beijing.

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China’s restrictions on the plastic bags came into effect on June 1, 2008. How well have the rules been implemented? What problems have arisen? What changes are still needed? chinadialogue, the internet portal Sohu’s environmental channel and the Global Village Environmental Culture Institute of Beijing (GVB) recently held a forum to mark the anniversary and to explore these questions.

In attendance were Li Jing, deputy head of the National Development and Reform Commission’s resource conservation and environmental protection department; Li Jiajian, head of the ministry of commerce’s standardisation office; Dong Jinshi, deputy director and secretary-general of the International Food Packaging Association; and various NGO and consumer representatives.

The following is an edited transcript of the discussion, hosted by Su Su of


What the ban changed

Host: Why were the regulations implemented? How should we understand this policy?

Li Jing: China is a major producer and consumer of plastic bags, and their overuse and poor disposal cause a large amount of waste – particularly with the thinnest bags. They do not biodegrade easily; in soil they reduce permeability and water absorption, and threaten crops; and they can be fatal if eaten by animals.

The policy aimed to save resources and protect the environment, and also show China to be a responsible country on the international stage. Over a dozen provinces and cities had implemented their own bans and restrictions, but on a national level this wasn’t very significant. These nationwide restrictions helped change that.

Host: And over this last year, have we seen the hoped-for results?

Li Jing: Personally, I think the results have been clear and, in the main, positive. In particular, environmental awareness has increased. Shops and supermarkets have implemented the rules well. Things aren’t ideal at some markets, particularly as time passes and the policy gets forgotten. I pretended to be buying vegetables once and asked a few of the stallholders. They felt that nobody was enforcing it any more.

Li Jiajian: Markets and some more remote areas haven’t done so well, and there are variations in implementation. But there’s a process from setting rules and seeing them fully implemented.

Host: A survey published on May 20 by the China Chain Store & Franchise Association found that while plastic-bag usage in foreign-invested supermarkets had dropped by 80%, the fall was only 60% in Chinese-owned stores. The overall drop was 66%, and about 40 billion fewer bags had been used. Mr Dong also has a set of figures.

Dong Jinshi: Our survey, conducted over more than a year, found that the number of plastic bags in garbage has reduced by over 10%. Beijing produces over 20,000 tonnes of garbage a day, with 10% -- about 2,000 tonnes of that – being plastic bags. A 10% reduction means 200 tonnes less garbage.

The effects of the policy have received national, and even international, recognition. When it comes to the environment, we often learn from abroad. But in this case, it’s the other way round.

Host: Wang Jie, you’re a full-time housewife. What changes have you seen?

Wang Jie: It’s definitely made a difference. Now when I go out to buy something I have to check I’ve remembered to bring a bag. It’s a little inconvenient. But I think it’s worth it. Some of my neighbours and friends think it was just for the Olympics, and that the ban should end now. But I think we should stick with it, make it a good habit. 

Implementation problems

Host: Once the ban was announced, environmentally friendly replacement bags were promoted, mostly cloth bags. Some NGOs hold that the manufacturing of any product consumes resources and creates pollution, and that only reducing use is actually environmentally friendly. This includes non-woven fabric bags and the plastic bags used for fresh produce.

Li Jing: Fresh-produce bags are only used in the supermarket for buying fish, fruit and so on; they’re a kind of pre-packaging. As shopping bags now cost money, the free fresh-produce bags are used more often. Non-woven fabric bags aren’t plastic, but do consume more oil in production than the plastic equivalent. Nor can they be recycled, so widespread use could be a potential danger, causing greater waste of resources and environmental damage.

Host: Also, the bags used by restaurants for takeaway or delivery food aren’t charged for. Why is that?

Li Jiajian: First, the level of bag use in the catering industry is very low. Secondly, making it easier for consumers to take leftovers home is actually saving waste – so restaurants weren’t included in the restrictions, nor were hospitals. However, I’ve observed that most hospitals do charge for plastic bags [in which to carry medicines]. I believe that the catering industry will follow suit in the near future.

Host: We carried out an online survey in May, and found that only 15% of markets charge for bags, and the vast majority still provide free super-thin bags. Why?

Li Jing: The new rules have two main points: a strict ban on super-thin plastic bags, those thinner than 0.025 millimetres; and the encouragement of charging for bags that do meet national standards. But control of manufacturing isn’t very effective, and it’s easy to set up simple workshops producing plastic bags -- which means enforcement isn’t easy. And if the super-thin bags are available, markets in more remote areas will use them. There’s room for improvement here.

Host: Mr Dong, do you have any suggestions here?

Dong Jinshi: Markets have lots of stalls, and it’s hard to manage them all – but it can be done. Take Beijing’s Dongjiao market as an example. That sees annual sales of over three billion yuan [about US$440 million], but only six stallholders sell plastic bags and they have to be authorised to do so. Traders pay a deposit of 30,000 yuan [US$4,400], and if they are found to be selling substandard bags then punishments – including loss of that deposit, or even removal from the market – are enforced. Also, the prices charged for bags must be clearly marked. Since these measures were brought in, not one trader has had a deposit confiscated.

Host: What issues has the ministry of commerce seen?

Li Jiajian: We’ve found that some street traders, and some restaurants, are using large quantities of substandard bags. This is to some extent related to the difficulties and costs of monitoring the situation.

Recycling of old plastic bags

Host: Mr Dong, you’ve bought us a brick made from plastic bags?

Dong Jinshi: Discarded plastic bags can affect the soil and groundwater. This brick is made from plastic bags, coal ash and clay. It’s strong. You can drive a car over it. It turns plastic bags into a resource, a product, rather than burying or burning them.

Host: What has the National Development and Reform Commission done towards the recycling of plastic bags?

Li Jing: We’re working on it. There are regulations for the recycling of reusable resources, including plastic bags, which set minimum standards for recycling firms. Those requirements are still low, or non-existent, and we’re working on that. We’re also setting up similar projects as part of circular economy trials, particularly after the release of the circular economy law.

Li Jiajian: The ministry of commerce ran a first set of plastic-bag recycling trials in 26 cities, and we’re now running a second stage in all provincial capitals and local administrative centre cities. Central authorities are also to finance local government centres for sorting building waste. These measures are bound to help with the recycling of plastic bags.

Li Jing: I’ve visited a number of provinces to see what’s happening and, in some, recycling is already taking place at scale, such as Linyi in Shandong. It’s doing really well there. We try and see recycling as a mine in the city. We don’t use new resources. We use recycled resources, saving power and protecting the environment.

For more from the Beijing forum, see

Also, please add your thoughts about the issues raised on chinadialogue’s forum.

Homepage image by 搜狐绿色

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The use of plastic bags observed by me

Over the past year of bag ban, we have brought less plastic bags from supermarkets. Yet, I don't see less plastic bags are used everyday. Just like what is said in the article, plastic bags are still popular in a market of my neighborhood. Most products found in department stores are also "overly packaged" with all sorts of packaging bags. Security guards of my school dorm regularly give plastic garbage bags. Anyway, I can observe that the number of plastic bags used everyday has not been greatly reduced.


我也常常看到在例如小型市场等场所使用塑胶袋的例子,它们大多是超薄塑料袋。执法是唯一的答案。我的经验是,如果没有确实执行有关法律及条例,人们便会视而不见。我会以已使用的塑胶袋盛载垃圾,但是这亦非最佳方法。市场上应该有生物可降解塑胶袋。每一个社区都应设有弃置各种塑料袋的地方,同时循环再造塑胶 (容器)、铝、金属、纸张、其他可再造物质。这都不是难以实现的。然后孩子在学校亦应该接受有关教育,再由他们影响父母,这有助监督社区确实做到循环再造。这都是教育带来的成效。


I've also seen many examples of plastic bag use in places like small markets. In the vast majority of cases, the bags are ultra-thin ones. The only answer is enforcement. My experience is that if laws and regulations aren't enforced then the population will ignore them.
I reuse my plastic bags for garbage but this isn't an ideal situation either. Biodegradable bags for garbage should be on the market.
There should be a place in every community where plastic bags of all kinds can be disposed of, along with the recycling of other garbage such as plastic (containers), aluminum, metal, paper, and other recyclable items. This wouldn't be hard to set into place. We can then educate our children in school who would then help to educate the parents. They can also help to oversee that the recycling is being done properly in their community.
It all comes with education.


james greyson

Bans are not the only answer

Bans are difficult to impose and to enforce. More bans are more difficult, so this is no way to approach a circular economy, where every product and every used resource would return as new resources for people or nature. China and other countries should save bans for items that are incompatible with a circular economy and then use a simple market tool to incentivise all products (not just bags) to not end up as waste in ecosystems. Please see my recent presentation about how to do it - it's not hard and it makes an economy that can work for everyone's future;
james greyson




More attention should be paid to excessive packaging

After charging for plastic bags, people are getting used to bring shopping bags with them. This is a good sign. Compared with plastic bags, the excessive packaging of many products is even more a waste of resources. For example, milk packaging cost is higher for using Tetra Fino Aseptic than ordinary bags. In fact, the milk consumed is just the same.

The comment was translated by Hebing





Support the ban on plastic bags

The biggest change over the past year is that, many people bring with their own shopping bags to supermarkets. Some do it out of economic-concern, while some wholeheartedly care for the environment. Of course, nothing on Earth can be perfect. Such ban on plastic bags also bears its own downside. Yet, as its benefits far outweigh its disadvantages, I regard this policy is successful.

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