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Slideshow: organic overtures

Meng Si visited a project in eastern China that trials natural farming methods. Introducing her photographs of the farm, she says extending its agricultural revolution still seems a distant dream.

Main 1

Far from the cramped and dirty world of battery hens and accelerated-growth hormones, chickens are raised in corn fields, where they keep weeds at bay, turn the soil and eat insects. Only a small amount of additional feed is required, and the meat is much healthier than that from conventional farms.

Main 2

Over one hundred head of cattle are fed on wheat bran and stalks, thereby avoiding the waste of straw.

Main 3

Earthworms are used to convert cattle dung to protein, which is then used as organic fertiliser. Currently this is a small-scale trial, but the farm plans to acquire 100 kilograms of earthworms and start full-scale production.

Main 4

In peanut-harvesting season, large quantities of agricultural membrane lie alongside the non-organic fields near the farm. Experts say pollution caused by the membrane is getting worse.

Main 5

Weeds on the farm are removed manually rather than destroyed by weed-killer. They are then used to feed fish and locusts, creating new sources of income.

Main 6

Special lamps are used to attract and trap beetle larvae that harm crops, rather than using pesticides to kill them. The protein-rich insects are used to feed poultry.

Main 7

Pellets produced from straw are easier to store and more nutritious than conventional feed. But transport and storage still requires the use of non-biodegradable plastic.

Main 8

The fertiliser used to grow crops is sourced from cattle dung.

Main 9

Residue from kelp processing is used to produce microbial fertiliser. In the bottom right-hand corner is the three-metre tall fermentation vat. Unlike Hongyi, the chairman of this company believes that improving agricultural product quality requires corporate operations to provide accountability.

Main 10

With Jiang Gaoming's help, local farmer Jiang Gaoyu is raising chickens in the forest. Fencing prevents the birds from wandering away from the trees.

Article image

In late 2008, reports claimed that pesticide residue in peanuts grown in one county in Shandong, eastern China, were at potentially fatal levels. Official investigations discredited the rumours and peanut-lovers continue to enjoy their snack. But issues in peanut-growing, such as the use of toxic chemicals and agricultural membranes, remain unaddressed.

Peanut farmers know there is a range of factors that can reduce harvests, including pests such as beetle larvae. And, for the majority of farmers, the only way to deal with pests is powerful toxic pesticides, such as the long-banned “666”. In addition, agricultural membranes – thin plastic sheets – are often laid over fields of peanuts and other crops in order to prevent the evaporation or run-off of water and fertiliser and to reduce weed growth. But these membranes are difficult to gather up after use, and are usually abandoned by the side of fields, polluting the soil.

“Our existing agricultural methods cut off ecological cycles,” says Jiang Gaoming, chief researcher at the Chinese Academy of Sciences' Institute of Botany and a columnist for chinadialogue. “We need to restore and make use of those natural cycles.”

Since 2007, Jiang's research team has rented 27,000 square metres of land in Shandong, eastern China, to use as the Hongyi Organic Farm. The project aims to demonstrate organic farming practices, exploring commercially-viable forms of organic agriculture and attempting to grow the most successful organic crops in China.

The idea of organic agriculture originated in Europe and, by the year 2000, it was being used to some degree in 141 nations. But the amount of farmland dedicated to the practice in Asia remains fairly low compared to Europe, where organic methods are relatively widespread.

However, as living standards and awareness of environmental issues have increased in recent years, China has started catching up with the west in enthusiasm for organic farming, although high prices and inconsistent certification have left many consumers unconvinced about organic products and reluctant to buy them.

Jiang explains: “We have stopped all use of pesticides, herbicides, fertilisers, membranes and additives and we don't use anything genetically modified; we're testing the role of organic agriculture in maintaining yields and improving profits. In just three years, we have already seen the power of this approach.”

Jiang is no mere follower of fashion. He believes that, if Chinese agriculture fails to move towards organic practices, the nation's soil will lose its last remnants of fertility. Like so many other commercial operations that have failed to account for environmental factors in business planning, the farming sector has long ignored the vital role of the soil. As a result, agricultural membranes, fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides have turned rich, dark earth pale.

But is it possible just to do away with chemicals in farming? What about their role in fighting disease and pests? China uses 7% of the world's arable land to feed 20% of the world's people – a miracle made possible by the use of over 1.2 million tonnes of chemicals annually.

“Farmers use 50 yuan (US$7.30) of toxic chemicals for every 667 square metres of peanuts planted but this still doesn't bring the pests completely under control. Our costs are much lower,” Jiang points out. In one of the team's small fields, pesticides have been replaced with two lamps that use light of a particular spectrum to attract insects to traps. “It doesn't catch all of them but it achieves an ecological balance,” says Jiang. “Even if the insects aren't there, the lights won't do any harm.”

The lights can attract up to 4.5 kilograms of insects a night. But, due to insect lifecycles, they are only caught on 70 nights of the year. In the last year, the farm has collected over 100 kilograms of insect larvae to use as feed supplements.

The farm also uses manual labour or mowers rather than weed-killer to remove weeds, which are then fed to locusts and freshwater fish. The income from this is enough to employ two farm labourers all year round. A 120-strong herd of cattle is fed using straw and cattle dung is used to produce methane to provide energy for the farm, with the waste products returned to the fields as high quality, organic fertiliser.

According to Jiang Gaoming's research, up to 70% of fertiliser used in China is wasted and overuse of such chemicals is a serious problem. He believes organic fertiliser could help China's agriculture move from a sector that is “high cost, high output, high pollution” to one that is “low cost, low output, no pollution”.

Can improving soil fertility and using organic practices result in lower costs than traditional methods? Organic grains and vegetables currently cost three to five times as much as normal equivalents on the market, while leeks and celery from Shandong province sell for 20 yuan (US$2.9) per half kilogram.

One person who believes low costs are feasible is Zhan Peilin, chairman of Rizhao Yikang Organic Technology. His company's microbial organic fertiliser is made out of sludge waste from kelp processing and bacteria imported from Japan, and trials have shown it is as effective as its chemical equivalents. However, he says state subsidies and preferential policies for chemical fertilisers are reducing the competitiveness of alternatives.

Zhan also believes that Jiang's farm suffers from a disconnect between production and the market. “As soon as production expands, you'll find the market is too small, unless you are providing animal proteins for food processors," he says, after visiting the locust-feeding hut. He adds that a single farm running a range of operations will incur higher management and business costs than larger ventures. And, with food safety legislation and monitoring still in need of improvement, only corporations – with their strong management and concern for corporate reputation – can be relied upon to provide accountability.

The farm is currently helping local farmer Jiang Gaoyu raise free-range chickens, using the “organic space” between crops. “In theory, the bigger an organic farm gets, the better the ecological and economic results are; management costs go down and more jobs are created,” says Jiang. His immediate goal is to persuade the villagers to dedicate 67,000 square metres of land to organic agriculture, with a long-term goal of converting the village’s entire 667,000 square kilometres to the practice.

As well as peanuts, the farm grows around 20 types of grain and vegetable, including wheat, corn, soya, green beans, chives, celery, potatoes, onions and garlic. These now carry an “organic” label and are described as high-standard, high-quality products, with no chemicals, fertilisers, additives or artificial compounds used. It seems that, after the excitement of increased yields brought about by such substances, followed by a period of overuse, those at the cutting edge of farming in China have decided to sever links with chemicals after seeing the damage done to the soil.

Despite a disappointing yield from the first crop of corn due to waterlogging, Jiang and his students remain confident. They believe that patience and constant experimentation are essential. It was the urgent quest for immediate results that led the farming industry to ignore soil quality in the first place, and to use fertilisers, chemicals and membranes, creating hard, polluted, infertile and unsustainable soil.

Jiang believes the farm's role as a demonstration project is more important than commercial success. But farmers need more than faith; they need reliable models and a stable income before they can be persuaded to abandon conventional practices.

Many agricultural experts share Jiang’s views and hope to save the soil – and the farming industry – through organic practices. For seven years, the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences has been running a project investigating key technologies for new types of multifunctional microbial fertiliser. Yuan Longping, the 79-year-old “father of hybrid rice”, is hopeful he will see 1,000 kilograms of super-hybrid rice produced per 667 square-metre harvest by the time he is 90. But, for now, eating healthily and eating enough remains no easy task for China’s 1.3 billion people.


Meng Si is managing editor at
chinadialogue’s Beijing branch


 

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评论通过管理员审核后翻译成中文或英文。 最大字符 1200。

Comments are translated into either Chinese or English after being moderated. Maximum characters 1200.

评论 comments

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

回复评论10

现在城里的小资和白领,吃大米白面的变少,也不意味着他们消耗的粮食少。他们吃的肉也来自粮食啊

Response to Comment 10

Yuppies and white collars in cities might be eating less rice and wheat, but that doesn't mean they're actually consuming less grain. They're still eating meat, and that meat comes from grain!
(Translated by Jacob Fromer)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

无为农业

我发现这篇文章很有意思,因为正好我在读一本关于农业的书。书中不仅提到使用完全有机的方法生产,甚至模仿自然循环的过程。这种生产方式对劳动力需求很低(因此也更便宜),对土地环境的健康也很有益。该书的作者(在此方面的实践已经有30多年)认为,如果有机农作方法得当,成本会更低得多。
非有机的农业生产方式之所以便宜,是因为消费者未被要求为环境成本付费——如果你想对环境成本了解更多,可以看前面的一篇马军的文章。

Do-nothing farming

This article interests me because I just read a book about farming that doesn't just use purely organic methods but actually mimics natural cycles of nature. This type of farming is much less labor intensive (therefore cheaper) and promotes the environmental health of the land. The author (who had been practicing for more than 30 years) says that if done right organic farming should be much cheaper.

Inorganic farming is only cheap now because consumers have not been charged for the environmental costs - if you want to know more about environmental costs, see Ma Jun's article above this one.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

回复评论1

现在还在试验阶段,几乎没有形成规模供给市场,许多食品的生长周期都要一年。

Re: Comment 1

Organic farming is still in an experimental phase, and to all intents and purposes does not take place on a scale large enough to supply the market; many foodstuffs take a year to grow.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

大众还是贵族?

我觉得抛开“有机”、“生态”种种标签,农业专家们的目标应该不仅仅是为市场提供又一种高质量的贵族食品(即使成本下降,产量仍然无法满足大众需求),而是为中国危险的农业生产方式寻找具有普遍意义的稳步转型之路。这比探讨有机食品的小市场意义更大,挑战也更大。

The masses or the rich few?

I think that aside from various kinds of "organic" and "ecological" tag, the objective of agricultural experts should not just be to provide the market with yet another kind of high- quality food for the rich few (even if the cost falls, the quantities produced will still not be enough to satisfy the demand of the general public), but to search for a general- purpose, steady way to change the course of dangerous Chinese agricultural production methods. This is more meaningful than discussing the small market for organic food, and the challenges it presents are also greater.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

请孟斯验证

孟斯:您好!请君到新华网三农论坛上看帖,标题是,请看:大旱之年旱地不灌溉也能高产。推广“非灌溉化治理耕地干旱,水土流失,发展高效农业“发明专利模式,能解决中国诸多生态,环境,三农,水,水治理,农业用水,粮食安全等等难题。我己进行了河南,甘肃,陕西,山西等省进行了十多年实验,均成功。河南省洛宁县国税局雷新周[email protected]

Mengsi, Please Review

Hello, Mengsi! Please visit Xinhua News website's 'San Nong' discussion forum and read the post titled: A Year of Drought Without Irrigation Can Still Have High Yields. Promoting the "trend toward non-irrigation policy in arable lands stricken with drought, soil erosion, and developing highly-efficient agricultural systems" patented method; it provides solutions to several of China's ecological, environmental, 'san nong', water, water policy, agricultural water, and food safety problems in addition to many more difficult issues. I have conducted work for more than ten years in the provinces of Henan, Gansu, Shaanxi, and Shanxi among others.
Lei Xinzhou, National Tax Bureau, Luoning County, Henan Province, [email protected]
Comment translated by Clay Baylor

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

生态农业的关键

看评论二与评论三,我认为都不妥当。生态农业的关键,既是组织上的,更是技术上的!生态农业不是不可能在中国推开,而是能大面积在中国推开。问题是中科院的拿出的研究结果是一个技术乌托邦!玩玩儿也就完了,白白浪费纳税人几个钱。
生态农业不可能普及到千家万户,也不能被允许普及到那个程度,因为我们还要考虑粮食安全?非也!问题是中科院拿不出适合千家万户普及的模式!

Key to Ecological Agricultre

I don't think the second and third comments are right. The key to eco-agriculture is both organization and, to a greater degree, technology! It's not that eco-agriculture cannot take root in China or across a large area of the country. The problem is that the results of research conducted by the Chinese Academy of Sciences is a technological utopia! The game is over and the time of squandering taxpayers' dollars is finished.

Some argue that it's not possible for eco-agriculture to become widespread, and it cannot be allowed to spread to such a degree because food safety has to be considered. But it's not true. The problem is that the Chinese Academy of Sciences is unable to come up with a suitable method to make it more widespread.

Comment translated by Clay Baylor

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

生态农业可以是贵族

杂交水稻亩产1000公斤,这已经快到极限了,下一步要再想增产,目前看来也只有转基因一条路了。

今天在新浪上看到一个对袁隆平的采访,头版头条。他说:“对转基因食品不能一概而论...如果转基因抗病虫的水稻要人体作实验,我将第一个报名。”
http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2010-03-05/065019793549.shtml

假设我们说转基因是大势所趋了,那么生态农业当然可以是“贵族”的。给消费者选择的权利是一方面,另外产品生产、流通等等过程的透明化也很重要。有些消费者就是要有机的、要生态的,那么哪怕这些作物没有办法像转基因一样高产,成本大、价格高,只要有人愿意消费,又有何不可。

Organic Farming Can Be For The Wealthy

Hybrid rice paddies are producing yields of 1000 kilograms, which is already close to the upper limit. If the next step in increasing production is to be taken, it currently seems like transgenic engineering is the only path left.

Today, I saw an interview with Longping Yuan on Sina, on the top of the front page. He said " Transgenic foods cannot be discussed as if they are all the same... If transgenic rice engineered to be resistant to insects and disease needs to be tested on human subjects, I'll be the first to sign up."
http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2010-03-05/065019793549.shtml

If we assume that transgenic engineering is the trend of the future, organic farming can cater to the well- off. Giving consumers the right to choose is one way forward, and additionally, the transparency of processes such as the production and circulation of such goods, among others, is also very important. Some consumers do want organic, and ecological products. As that is the case, why would you worry that these products may not produced on a comparably large scale, with large production costs and prices as high as transgenic products? As long as there are willing consumers, there is no reason they shouldn't be successful.

Default thumb avatar Reply arrow
meter

天哪,这真是袁先生说的吗?

转基因食品研发的过程就是一个非生态的过程,就象当年的疯牛病一样,往牛饲料里加牛肉粉,这样的食品能吃?全球人也会疯了!

Golly, did Mr.Yuan really mean it?

Genetically modified foods are anti-ecological, just like mad cow disease, adding vermicelliwithbeef into forage, how could the beef made in this way be eaten? Human beings are to be mad!

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

回复评论10

真理越辩越明。看来我们的对峙,与其说是观点上的,不如说是表达上的。
不过,我相信,我们所探讨和担忧的,主要只是这项产业的效率问题。生态农业同时也是良心活,做的好,我们就会支持。
其他不说了,不然笔墨官司打不完。只说一点,食品安全,有两类,一类是三聚氰胺类,一类是寿光蔬菜类。请君思之。

Re. Comment 10

The more we debate, the clearer the truth becomes. It seems that with regard to our differences, rather than saying they are differences of viewpoint, it would be better to describe them as differences of expression.
However, I believe that out of everything we talk about and are concerned about, the most important part is the problem of the efficiency of organic farming. At the same time, organic farming is also well- intentioned; if it can be done well, we'd definitely support it.
I won't say anything else, or the lawsuit will never be finished. I'll only say one thing, there are two types of food safety problems, one is the melamine kind, and one is the Shouguang vegetable kind. Please think about that.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

公众支持

将家庭的土地用于可持续的食品生产,是一项可行的,有利可图的范例,已在日本得以很好实施。也就是说,农民直接像当地的消费者提供销售,这得益于公众支持计划实行,在日本被称作竹井计划或西部公众支持农业计划。
这是一个信任的机制,消费者在提供高质量、新鲜的本地食品上发挥了积极的作用,因此才能为消费者营造一个更加安全的市场,食品也有了更好的保障。

此评论由anna(陈丽英)翻译

community support

The workable, and profitable, model for combining family land to promote sustainable food production is aptly demonstrated in Japan by creating direct local sales from farmer to consumer via community supported schemes, called Takei in Japan or Community Support Agriculture in the West.
This is a trust system in which consumers take a small active role in their supply of higher quality, locally produced fresh food, thereby creating safer and better food security for those involved.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

蒋高明对本文的回应

http://wenku.baidu.com/view/e4d4e47101f69e31433294d6.html

Response to the article by Gaoming Jiang

http://wenku.baidu.com/view/e4d4e47101f69e31433294d6.html