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A deadly white dust (1)

Asbestos causes 100,000 deaths each year but its trade in Asia – overseen by a powerful lobby – is still flourishing. Melody Kemp reports.

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In parts of Asia, carrying 500 grams of one lethal white powder – heroin – can draw a death sentence. But importing 1,000 tonnes of another is both legal and profitable. Asbestos, a known carcinogen banned in much of the world, is a common and dangerous building block of much of Asia’s development and construction boom. According to Medical News Today, it causes 100,000 occupational deaths per year. Figures from China make that number improbably conservative.

While images of children with heroin-loaded needles stuck in their arms spark public outrage, clouds of asbestos fibres in factories and on construction sites often draw official shrugs and denials. Illicit drug use does not rank among the top ten causes of death in young adults, according to a 2009 study of global adolescent health. But, in some Asian nations, including China, asbestos is high on the list of causes of occupational disease in labourers, some of whom were exposed as working children.

Across much of Asia, white asbestos, also known as chrysotile, is widely used to make construction materials such as roofing tiles, wall panels and expansion joints as well as brake linings and gaskets in buses and trucks. As modernisation and economic development take hold, people are trading their insect-filled, flammable grass roofs and woven bamboo walls for asbestos-cement materials.

Like a sleeping bear, asbestos can be deadly when disturbed and, all through the mining, manufacturing, installation, cutting and deconstruction processes, the mineral is turned into air-borne fibres that lodge in the lungs and cause fatal respiratory diseases, including mesothelioma, a form of cancer.

A few years ago, at a state-owned roof-tile factory in Vietnam, I saw young male workers, clad only in shorts, carrying bags labelled “Asbestos-Kazakhstan”. The air was thick with white dust huffing up like steam from lava. Visiting occupational health and safety experts held their breath as long as they could; some smothered their faces in dust masks. The workers did not have that luxury. Their only protection was handkerchiefs, tied bandit-style over their mouths and noses, as they climbed the sides of the hoppers. “I know it’s dangerous,” said the manager spreading his hands and shrugging. “But it’s also cheap – and people only want to buy cheap tiles.”

But some people refuse to acknowledge the risks. “It's just a PR campaign when they say that asbestos can kill,” Viktor Ivanov told journalists in 2007, when he was head of the Chrysotile Association, an industry group based in the Russian town of Asbest. His company is Uralasbest – the Ural Asbestos Mining & Ore Dressing Company – which, on its website, claims to be the world's “oldest and largest manufacturer and supplier of chrysotile”.

In 2005, the Russian firm produced about a quarter of the world's chrysotile asbestos and exported it to 35 countries: 53% to countries such as China, Egypt, Indonesia, Pakistan and Thailand, outside the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and 13% to countries within the CIS, which were formerly part of the former Soviet Union, such as Armenia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Ukraine. Its website vigorously contests critical claims about the dangers of asbestos and the calls to eliminate its use.

Vietnam cannot agree with Uralasbest’s contentions. A rising tide of workers ill with asbestos lung disease arising from situations like the one described above, has led the government to collaborate with the Australian trade union aid agency APHEDA, to develop a coordinated approach to dealing with asbestos.

The country joins a growing list of nations attempting to tackle the trade. Very little asbestos ends up in the west. More than 60 countries have either partially or completely banned the substance, including the United States, Australia, Japan and South Korea. The European Union has outlawed both brown amphibole and white chrysotile asbestos and the World Health Organisation (WHO) has classified all types as human carcinogens.

But asbestos merchants, in spite of the overwhelming scientific evidence, claim that chrysotile is safe. “Today’s asbestos industry, with all its modern protection techniques, is absolutely harmless,” Tatiana Kochetova of the Asbest-based Institute for Asbestos Projects told the Russian Journal. “There hasn’t been one case of asbestos-caused disease here for many years. Locally produced asbestos does not cause any harm.” Researchers Jock McCulloch and Geoffrey Tweedale have indeed documented rates of malignancies dropping in Asbest. But this only happened after the introduction of dust control technologies – and the dispersal of ill workers. Those same safety measures, which, in any case, mitigate rather than eliminate risk, are largely lacking in the countries to which Russian asbestos is exported.

Asbest is a classic monogorod, or single-industry town, in Bazhenouskoye in northern Kazakhstan, along the eastern slope of the Ural ridge. The open-pit mine covers 90 square kilometres and is 11.5 kilometres long, 1.8 kilometres wide and almost 300 metres deep. There, some 10,000 workers turn out more than 500,000 tonnes of chrysotile asbestos each year.

In 2009, Uralasbest was forecasting production of 450,000 tonnes, “a significant portion of the world market”, and its full-year revenues in 2006 were US$192 million (1.3 billion yuan), according to Rye, Man & Gor Securities. Russia produced 925,000 tonnes of asbestos in 2008, according to the US Geological Survey, almost half the estimated world production of about 2 million tonnes a year, and worth US$900 million (6.1 billion yuan).

Once state-owned, Uralasbest is now privatised. More than half of its share capital is owned through a Russian regional bank (Ural Bank for Reconstruction and Development). Stroyexport, another Russian company, owns 14% and two South Africa-registered companies, Petrov & Co. and Mavrol Management, own 21%. The top managers control about 30% of the company. In 2007, Uralasbest entered into a joint venture with Swiss Minmet Financing Company to recover magnesium from its asbestos-mine tailings. This move was meant as a hedge against the global decline in construction.

Perhaps more threatening to Uralasbest's economic future than recession is the growing awareness that asbestos is toxic and alternatives are available. In 2000, citing Canada's high level support for their industry as a model, Russian asbestos sector officials sought Vladimir Putin’s assistance in countering "asbestphobia".

Russian corporations also looked to Canadian and Kazakh marketing efforts in newly rich Asian nations. That strategy has produced rich results according to the World Asbestos Reports. And the World Health Organisation confirms that some countries have reduced restrictions and increased production and use of chrysotile.


Melody Kemp is a freelance writer and a member of the
Society for Environmental Journalism (US). She now lives in south-east Asia.

An
earlier version of this article was published as "The Other Deadly White Dust: Russia, China, India and the Campaign to Ban Asbestos”, The Asia-Pacific Journal, 13-1-10, March 29, 2010.

NEXT: China’s asbestos record

 
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Comments are translated into either Chinese or English after being moderated. Maximum characters 1200.

评论 comments

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

胡同里的石棉

今天早上,我在北京四合院对以切割石棉瓦为生的邻居们提了个醒。我告诉他们,我的父亲就是死于过度接触石棉,年仅51岁。 我深知有毒粉尘的危害,因为它不仅结束了我父亲的生命,还夺走了我17岁时最好的朋友。 当我告诉四合院邻居们石棉的危害时, 他们通常只是笑笑而已。 就连一个离石棉切割地只有两米的主妇也只是笑,并表示一点也不担心。我问她原因,而她回答道:“中国人就这样“。 今天,我决定是时候要离开中国了。 石棉是致命的,冷漠也是致命的。

Asbestos in the Hutongs

This morning in the Beijing courtyard (zayuan) I share with many other residents, workers were cutting up boards of asbestos siding (石棉瓦). My father died from exposure to asbestos. He was only 51. I know too much about this deadly dust and its consequences. Asbestos ended my father's life and took from me the best friend I ever had when I was 17 years old. When I told my courtyard neighbors about the dangers of this, most of them laughed. A woman cooking for her family just two meters from the workers cutting up asbestos boards, laughed too, and said she wasn't concerned about it. I asked why? She said, "This is just how Chinese people are." (”中国人就这样“) Today, I decided it is time to leave China. Asbestos is deadly, and so is apathy.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

生存的空间

谢谢1号的评论,很伤感也很无奈。对于这些中国人来说,是不是不切割石棉瓦,不干严重危害自己生命的事情,一样没有生存的空间?

Living Space

Thank you to comment 1, so sad, yet so helpless. For these Chinese people, whether or not cutting up asbestos boards is something seriously endangering their lives, is there no living space?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

责任

就跟矿难一样。如果能开发新能源,能有可便宜更安全更少污染的能源替代煤矿,那是最好的事情。如果短期内做不到,那至少应该加强安全生产的监管,保护好矿工的生命安全。如果都做不到,我认为那是对生命的漠视,是政府工作的不尽责。

Responsibility

This is just like a mining disaster. It would be best if new energy sources could be exploited, and replace coal mines with cheaper, safer, less polluting energy sources. If this is impossible in the short term, we should at least increase supervision of production safety, and protect the safety of miners. If this is impossible as well, I think it is neglectful of human life. The Government is not taking due responsibility.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

要命的石棉

不生产石棉吃什么,我们每天都在石棉窝里,吃饭,喝水到处都是石棉,也从没人管过,保健用品就发几个薄口罩,一点都没用,当官的都把钱贪了,从来不管老百姓的死活,从事这么危险的活,工资也低,当官的工资高不说,年底还有分红,可是老百姓什么都没有,要是拍几张照片,工厂里的环境会吓死你的,这就是青海茫崖石棉矿

lethal asbestos

What would we eat without the production of asbesto? We spend every moment surrounded by asbestos. Asbestos is everywhere when we eat and drink and nobody ever cared about it. Health care supplies provide some flimsy surgical masks, which are of no use. Government officials are corrupted and don't care about the fate of people, how dangerously they live or their low wages. We don't speak of the officials high wages and at the end of the year they even get bonuses, while the people have nothing. If pictures were to be taken, the conditions of the factory would be shocking. This is the Qinghai Mangya abestos mine.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

并非冷漠

这并不是漠视,而是一种忽视,习以为常和无可奈何。普通大众对此能做的不多。一直以来,这些人都被政府所忽略,而他们自己也对此习以为常。笑对这些危害和风险是让他们感觉到自身力量的一种途径,即便危险并不会就此消失。从个人层面上,人们是无法长久地抵抗这种潮流的。他们已经对此厌倦了,随之放弃努力,接受这种生活,无论这种生活会带来的是什么。

not apathy

This is not apathy, but ignorance, adaptation and resignation. Common people cannot do much about it. They are kept in ignorance by the authorities and they are used to living like this. Laughing at the risk is a way to feel empowered, even if the risk is still there. At the individual level, people cannot go against the flow for a long time. They get tired of it. And then they give up and live as they can, profit of whatever the life offers.