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If money grew on trees

Saving the world’s rain forests would be the cheapest way to stave off climate change. But, argues Fiona Harvey, without a business model that works, it is just a hopeless dream.

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Walking into the Amazon rain forest, the overwhelming impression is of the sheer abundance of its life. A savoury, soupy smell covers everything, as if nature were in the kitchen – the smell of vegetation sweltering in hot dampness. The noises bewilder, as you swivel to catch a monkey – or was it a bird? – crying as it flits away. Once, straying into a clearing where men had been illegally logging a Brazil nut tree, I was beset by a flurry of what I took to be small insects, fluttering about and landing on my jacket. On closer inspection, they turned out to be hundreds of tiny frogs, each about the size of a fingernail, exquisitely formed.

That we need to preserve such extraordinary places is self-evident – and not just for the glorious abundance of their life. We in the rich west need them for our own sakes, too. Forests represent some of the biggest stores of carbon on earth, and as trees are cut down they release their greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Saving the world’s last remaining forests would be by far the cheapest way to stave off climate change.

Governments have been locked in negotiations over how to save the world’s forests for more than 20 years. The key concern is rewarding forested nations for maintaining these extraordinary assets, which raises the question of how to compensate the people who live there for the lost opportunity of exploiting their forests for logging or farming.

In theory, it should not be a difficult task. Yet in all those years, the negotiators have managed to save scarcely a single tree.

In late November and early December 2010, ministers from around the world converged on Cancún in Mexico to discuss a global pact on tackling greenhouse-gas emissions. At 2009’s Copenhagen summit, leaders from developed and developing countries agreed for the first time to curb their emissions. But since then the fragile accord has disintegrated into a war of words, chiefly between the United States and China. The White House is also now hamstrung in what it can negotiate because of the hostility of congressional Republicans.

Consequently, Cancún was unlikely to result in much progress on a comprehensive global deal. So what many participants hoped was that by concentrating on one issue – preserving tropical forests – they could salvage something. A chorus of non-governmental organisations expressed confidence that the thorny issue of forestry was to being solved. Even hard-bitten negotiators were caught up in the excitement. “At least we will sort out forests this year,” one told me, hopefully.

I hadn’t the heart to reply that I had been told the same thing at each of the last six such meetings. Still less could I tell him my gloomy prediction – that the 2010 meeting would be the biggest failure yet, because although the world was closer than ever to agreeing a legal and practical framework on how forests should be preserved, we are further than ever from mustering the cash that is the pre-requisite for success.

Edouardo, who I meet at his home near a tiny settlement on the banks of the Amazon river, in Brazil’s Pará province, is typical of the small subsistence farmers of the area. He tells me how as a young father he brought his family here from a village some miles away. He found a convenient spot and made a small clearing to grow the crops his family survives on. Years later, a road was built and more people came to settle in the area. This made it easier for him to sell any surplus crops.

Edouardo is typical of the subsistence farmers who live in forests around the world, eking out a living on a small piece of land. Living so close to the forest, he regards himself as a part of its rich but fragile ecosystem. He laments the deforestation, and the incursions of cattle farmers.

Vital though it is to preserve the world’s forests, it would be wrong to blame small farmers like Edouardo, who are simply trying to feed their families in the only way they can. Any global climate deal must allow these farmers to make a living from their land, or offer them alternatives.

Worse by far are the cattle ranches. By flying over the Amazon, the scale of ranching in the region is quickly apparent. It is now the biggest cause of deforestation in the Amazon, according to Greenpeace, which alleges that many of the Amazon’s products – beef and leather – find their way into luxury goods and western supermarkets.

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD), the subject of a large chunk of the Cancún talks, is supposed to stop all this. It consists of a series of rules, developed over several years, which should provide a formula to gauge the worth of forests – and a mechanism to finance their preservation.

REDD is now nearly complete. It may seem astonishing that this has taken so long, but finally most of the details have been sorted out. We now know, for instance, the correct definition of a tree, how much carbon can be locked up in different areas of land, and how the rights of indigenous people can be safeguarded.

“A lot of progress has been made on REDD – it’s seen as being one of the most positive things in the negotiations,” says Elizabeth Zelljadt, senior analyst at Point Carbon, a carbon market analyst division of Thomson Reuters. “The prospects are good.”

Only one problem remains. Where is the money? REDD cannot succeed unless it generates income for the forested countries to ensure that trees are not illegally cut down, and looks after the needs of indigenous people within these forests. Cash must also be poured into providing the people of these countries with other opportunities for economic growth, such as developing new industries so that people like Edouardo do not have to encroach on the forest to feed their families. At a conservative estimate, the cash required is many tens of billions of dollars a year.

Where will these funds come from? For years, rich and poor nations were locked in a fruitless struggle over whether it should be found in “government to government transfers” – that is, developed country taxpayers’ funds being diverted to poor country governments. Rich countries were reluctant to agree to this, preferring to rely on the private sector to generate funding.

Poor countries should have recognised the ­reality sooner. The lesson from overseas aid is that relying on the generosity of western taxpayers is a mug’s game. Take the funding agreed for REDD so far, which amounts to US$5 billion to $6 billion – in total, not per year – from governments including Germany and the United Kingdom, and chiefly Norway, which has taken a strong interest in this issue. This money is useful, but comes nowhere near the sums that will be needed.

To the question of how to bring in private-sector cash, we already have an answer – one worked out long ago, in the first seven years of these long-running talks. Carbon trading provides a system through which developed countries require their industries to reduce their emissions by a certain amount. Rather than only cutting their own emissions, businesses can offset the greenhouse gases they produce by buying carbon credits from developing countries. Those credits are awarded to projects that reduce emissions – wind farms, for example, or solar power plants. Or, in the case of REDD, projects that protect existing trees, or regrow trees on damaged land.

Over the past five years, since the European Union set up its carbon trading system, and since the United Nations began awarding credits – though not to forestry projects, as that had to wait for REDD to be drawn up – the global carbon trading system has grown to a value of US$144 billion, according to the World Bank. This has been achieved even though some of the world’s biggest economies – the United States and Japan, for instance – have been standing on the sidelines. With other big economies involved, carbon trading could easily generate the funding necessary to save the world’s forests.

Carbon trading has many opponents. Certain vociferous green campaigners compare it to medieval indulgences, by which sinners could carry on sinning if they paid the church. They complain that it does not reduce emissions – though in fact the system clearly does result in reductions if the targets are correctly set. More nuanced criticism comes from observers who say companies in the largest existing carbon trading scheme, within the European Union, have managed to game the system. But this can be stopped, with small revisions to the rules.

Currently, the real problem for carbon trading is that the United States seems extremely unlikely to take part. President Barack Obama promised a “cap-and-trade” system, but his political difficulties have put paid to that. Unless he wins a second presidential term -- in 2012 -- with a thumping majority in the House and Senate, there will be no carbon trading in the United States, and therefore no global system.

Without a global carbon trading system, where will the money for REDD come from? Zelljadt points to the private sector: companies may choose to offset their emissions by investing in REDD projects to burnish their reputation or fulfil their corporate social responsibility goals.

On current showing, however, this market is also unlikely to be much of a money-spinner. In 2009, companies and individuals spent about US$338 million to offset their emissions, according to Point Carbon. For 2010, it is likely to be less owing to the recession. Five years ago, analysts were projecting that these voluntary efforts on offsetting would amount to several billion a year by now. They overestimated the desire of companies to spend money when they don’t have to.

Without a sturdy fundraising mechanism, REDD is worthless. It is a beautiful vehicle, lovingly crafted down to the last elegant detail, but without an engine; so it is doomed to failure. The engine that could have generated the cash is no longer there. Carbon trading is languishing. It could be revived, with a mighty effort of political will.


Fiona Harvey is the FT’s environment correspondent

http://www.ft.com/home/uk

© Copyright The Financial Times Ltd 2011

Homepage image from Greenpeace

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anumakonda

热带雨林向何处去?

优秀文章。

为什么要保护热带雨林栖息地?
热带雨林是世界上最古老而复杂的生态系统。它们只覆盖了地球的2%,但一半以上的植物和动物物种都生活在那里。热带雨林是很多生物的家,比如著名的美洲虎和箭毒蛙,以及鲜为人知的,甚至是身份不明的物种而闻名。
这些生态系统是一个惊人的资源,并很快就会溜走。热带雨林是许多现代的主食的发源地,包括番茄,玉米,巧克力,而我们只不过使用了可食用植物一小部分。此外,大约四分之一的现代药物来自于曾经应用于传统疗法的物种。西方的科学才分析了不到百分之一的具备药用化合物的热带雨林植物,而熟练使用这些植物的土著部落却正在迅速消失。
热带雨林物种正在迅速灭绝,这又增加了问题的复杂性。

*事实和数据来源:雨林联盟,世界卫生组织,和雨林基金会。(来源:热带雨林区)。

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(美联社),印度

Whither Rainforests?

Excellent article.

Why Preserve Rainforest Habitat?
Rainforests are some of the world's most ancient and complex ecosystems. They cover a mere 2% of the Earth, yet more than half of all plant and animal species live there. The rainforest is home to creatures as famous as the jaguar and poison dart frog, as well as lesser-known and even unidentified species.
These ecosystems are an amazing resource that is quickly slipping away. The rainforest is where many modern food staples originated, including tomatoes, corn, and chocolate, but we use a mere fraction of the edible plants available there. In addition, one quarter of modern medicines come from plant species that were first used as traditional remedies. Western science has analyzed less than one percent of rainforest plants for medicinal compounds, and the indigenous tribes that use these plants are rapidly disappearing.
To complicate matters more, the rate of species extinction in the rainforest is undeniably high.

found nowhere else in the world.
*Facts and figures from: The Rainforest Alliance, World Health Organization, and the Rainforest Foundation.(Source: The Rainforest Site).

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India

Default thumb avatar
alternativeview

指责对象有误

作者正确的强调了森林的重要性以及减少毁林和森林退化所致排放量(REDD)的失败,但却错误的暗示了是穷人主要导致了森林砍伐。
在印尼,因为和前总统苏哈托的关系而获利致富的群体所推行的棕榈油和木质纸浆产业才是罪魁祸首。穷人并不能从苏哈托领导的不可持续的(常常是非法的)经济发展得到好处。棕榈油和由印尼纸浆生产的纸制品其实代价昂贵。我们不应该购买任何从森林树木转化成的产品。

减少毁林和森林退化所致排放量 (REDD) 的失败主要源于政府并没有严肃对待气候变化--他们允许工业以可忽略不计的代价继续排放温室气体。按照原来定义抵消的碳量并不能减少此类排放。另一个原因是政府治理不力。

树木现在都被定义为碳封存的角色,这使得森林转化为绿色沙漠(即以生产棕榈油,橡胶和纸浆为目的的经济林)变得正当化。

Barking up the wrong tree

The author rightly highlights the importance of forests and the demise of REDD but wrongly implies that the poor are the primary cause of deforestation.

In Indonesia, the palm oil and wood pulp industries, promoted by groups which became rich through their links to former president Suharto are culpable. The poor did not benefit from the unsustainable (often illegal) economic growth which Suharto drove. Palm oil, and paper produced from Indonesian pulp, are luxuries. We should not buy anything made with products which derive from forest conversion.

The main reason why REDD is dead is that governments are not taking climate change seriously – allowing industry to continue emitting greenhouse gas with negligible penalty. Carbon offsets by definition do not reduce such emissions. Another is poor governance.

Trees are now defined as units of carbon sequestration in order to justify converting forests into green deserts (i.e. palm oil, rubber and pulpwood plantations).

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iseastars

生态经济 > 碳交易

在生态经济学的领域里,把微观经济学的原理用在雨林资源上从长远的环境保护这个角度来说至关重要。Gund研究院[http://www.uvm.edu/giee/]对于把经济和环境的相关理论融为一体,并创建出保护雨林的可持续方法有一套整体的理论。

碳排放给碳殖民主义创造出了一个成熟的氛围。因为这允许了污染最大国在减少自己所应承受的压力的同时,还从第三世界国家中诈骗碳额度。所以碳减排在这些国家基本上不存在,它们要成为接受惩罚的主要国家。

现在有一个全新的看法:如果中国态度非常坚决地在出口成本中把环境外部性这个成本也加上会带来什么样的结果。这会带来很大一笔可以用来保护自然资源的资金。但是这也会给现在的全球资本主义框架带来巨大的变化,而且跨国企业和那些污染非常大的工厂的盈利将会大大减少!

Ecological Economics > Carbon Trading.

Implementing microeconomic principles to rainforest resources as seen in the the field of "ecological economics" is crucial for long-term environmental preservation. The GUND institute [http://www.uvm.edu/giee/] takes a holistic outlook on incorporating economic and environmental principles to forge sustainable solutions on rainforest preservation.

The "Carbon Trading" plan creates an environment ripe for "Carbon Colonialism", allowing top polluting countries to lever their weight and swindle credits from third world economies. Thus little if any reduction of carbon emissions would actually take place in the countries that are the prime culprits of climate change.

Here's a radical idea: What if China were to take a firm stance to incorporate the costs of environmental externalities on their exports. This would yield a huge sum of money that could be allocated for natural resource preservation. However such scheme would radially alter the current framework of global capitalism, multi-national corporations and polluting factories would have to take huge cuts in their bottom line!

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linden.ellis

极端的观点

文章的观点有些极端,但是很好。悲哀的是,我认为这只会将生产转移到别处,比如中国或其他国家。没有资金就没有办法保护森林。商业集团的底线不会有明显让步。他们要么将成本计入要么不再经营,丢下那些失业了的外国工人。也许我是过于悲观了?

re: radical idea

That IS a radical idea; a good one. Sadly, I think it would just lead to corporations manufacturing elsewhere; and a China, or any country, deprived of capital will not protect its forests. Further, corporations don't take huge cuts in their bottom lines, they just pass on the costs or collapse and leave their multinational workers unemployed. Am I being overly cynical?

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iseastars

globalized perspectives

Yes perhaps the corporations would "pick up shop" and relocate to Indonesia, Vietnam or the Philippines. The whole global economic system would have to address environmental externalities, and given their track records on human rights, I don't have great faith in the WTO or IMF to make such change.

What really needs to be done is for the people of the world (Not the globalized mechanisms of free trade) to democratically ratify a global environmental law. Sure it sounds far-fetched, but think how far we've come on discussions of these issues. CD is a good example, whether I'm in Chengdu or Chicago, I can chime in on contemporary environmental debates. A bi-lingual forum on env. issues is great but a polyglot extension could really get the creative juices flowing!

大众观点

没错,但也许公司将转身把在亚马将逊的生意打包,迁移到印尼,越南,或者菲律宾。整个全球经济体系必燃会强调环境的外部经济性。看看人权的发展纪录,对于世界贸易组织或国际货币基金组织促进环境问题的改变,我没有什么信心。

真正需要为世界做的是,不是自由贸易的全球化机制,而是在民主的基础上批准一个全球性的环境法。当然这听起来很牵强,但想象一下我们对这些问题的探讨已经有多深入。中外对话就是一个很好的例子,不管我在成都或芝加哥,我都可以参与当时的环境讨论。一个双语论坛对于解决环境问题无疑是伟大的,但如果能扩展成为一个多语种的论坛,创意之流一定会源源不断!