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Joining forces on the grasslands

Cooperative herding in Inner Mongolia embodies the spirit of traditional nomad culture – it is also a path to economic development and grassland protection, writes Zhou Wei.

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This winter, continuous snows covered the pastures of Inner Mongolia’s East Ujumchin Banner. On the phone to Hobshalt, I could make out the sound of wind and motors. “These past few days have been hectic,” he said. “We have had blizzards and the livestock can’t get to the grass. Our cooperative is sending members out to take fodder to the herders.” He did not sound worried – work was going on, just like normal. 

Hobshalt is 40 years old, handsome and stocky. For almost 20 years, he has been the head of Hargobi village. For many years, he has also been in charge of its cooperative, using his popularity among local herders to drive efforts to help the poor and protect the grasslands and earning an excellent reputation among the people of East Ujumchin.

I first visited the village in 2007, with a group from Beijing. Our car had pulled in by the roadside when I saw a man on horseback galloping towards us in a cloud of dust, his blue Mongolian robes flowing in the wind, like something out of the movies. Entering a yurt we were told to let the elders in first, and then take our seats according to age and gender. We drank a toast and then carefully sipped our tea, trying not to cause any offence.

The first thing we noticed about the village was its respect for tradition – something many herding areas have lost. I also noted that, in contrast to our experience elsewhere on the grasslands, where we filmed and photographed the herders, here they were taking photos of us. They remained calm and confident even when meeting academics and officials from Beijing, and that left a deep impression.

East Ujumchin is at the northern tip of the Xilin Gol League, one of Inner Mongolia’s 12 prefectures, and has lusher grazing and better preserved grasslands culture than many other parts of the region. But like the rest of China, both its ecology and economy are vulnerable to harsh winds and snows. Sudden droughts and blizzards have been known to bankrupt more than half of local herders.

After the snows this year, the East Ujumchin government dispatched emergency fodder and transportation equipment, but delivering the supplies over snow-blocked roads through a vast and sparsely-populated region was a huge challenge. The East Ujumchin government ended up passing the task of delivery on to local committees. But, unlike other village heads, Hobshalt then delegated that task to members of the cooperative. With the herders looking after themselves and each other, the fodder was quickly and efficiently delivered.

A drought in 2001 killed half of Hargobi’s livestock, leaving many herders with no choice but to take high-interest loans in a bid to stem their losses. Later, unable to make repayments, the herders were forced to lease their pastures to the money lenders who, for a quick return, overgrazed and damaged the land. This kind of harm originating from high-interest borrowing is common in Inner Mongolia. Herders in areas where traditions of cooperation have been lost frequently have to resort to such loans after disaster strikes.

Over the last 20 years, under the household responsibility system, land in Inner Mongolia has been contracted out to individual households, the majority of which have put up fences to protect their plots. The herders say this fragments the grasslands and destroys traditions of cooperation and nomadism. In the past, the grasslands belonged to everyone. Herders in the east would travel thousands of kilometres to find fertile pastures, while those in the west would travel to the east to avoid drought or snow. In Mongolian, this kind of long-distance nomadism is called “aoteer”, a key method for avoiding danger. Wherever the nomads travelled, they would be welcomed as far-travelled guests.

Precipitation in Mongolia is variable and unevenly distributed – drought and blizzards can strike anywhere. As a result, herders traditionally worked together and looked out for each other. Hospitality was not just good manners, it was essential for survival: a herder knew that the next time it might be him seeking help in a distant place. But once the grasslands were parcelled out to households, the herders had too much invested in “their” land, and the success or failure of that pasture came to mean the success or failure of the household. Now if herders travel with their livestock to avoid disasters, they find water wells guarded by their owners and fees for grazing collected per head of livestock.

But if they stay home, they are forced to take high-interest loans so that they can buy fodder, and countless herders are left bankrupt and bereft of their land once the disaster has passed. The subsequent over-use of grasslands by lenders is a major factor in grassland degradation.

Hobshalt realised that, to have any hope of protecting the grasslands, the herders needed to work together. On behalf of the village, he helped poor households clear their debts and reclaim their land, and reallocated resources: poor herders without livestock were provided with stable livelihoods through paid labour or by renting out their land at a reasonable rate to richer herders. He also set up a system within the village to help pay for children from poor families to go to school or to leave for further education.

Then he started to think about a cooperative. He founded an association to apply those traditional nomadic practices still valid in modern herding and to organise the herders to jointly manage the grasslands. Elderly members of nomadic tribes are stores of knowledge and, in Hargobi, they sit on a herding committee, which acts as the decision-making body. All policy decisions are discussed and decided by the committee. Hobshalt has a reputation for being a fair and selfless village head.

In July 2007, a conference on grassland development cooperatives organised by the committee was held near East Ujumchin. The Agricultural Cooperative Law, which encourages Chinese farmers to work together, had just come into effect and the idea of cooperatives had reached the grasslands. Some herders with experience of cooperation were already looking for modern ways to apply it. After the meeting, Hobshalt registered a cooperative.

One of its first actions was to establish a breeding network for Ujumchin sheep, a large, robust animal that is said to have accompanied Ghengis Khan on his journeys of conquest. Once the pride of many herders, it has been neglected due to government policy on animal stock. After the cooperative was founded, the herders came together to purchase high-quality breeding animals. Now they all raise breeding animals, which fetch twice the price of a normal Ujumchin sheep. “When the price for livestock increases, you can shrink the herd, and then there’s less pressure on the grasslands,” said Hobshalt.

In 2009, he took a group of herders to Hulun Buir, in north-eastern Inner Mongolia, to learn from the experiences of other herding cooperatives and started plans to bring livestock products to the market. While the herders are benefitting from cooperation, they are still vulnerable. Hobshalt has seen others registering brand names for products and, along with some of the herders, is advocating a similar move for their cooperative. Then they can develop markets together, establish their own sales team and tackle problems of exploitation by middle men and the monopoly of existing brands.

Statistics from Inner Mongolia’s Pasture Management Office show that, between 2006 and 2008, the number of cooperatives in the region increased from 260 to 390, with the number of households involved jumping from more than 15,500 to almost 37,700. Many of these were cooperative organisations (cooperatives or associations) founded by the herders themselves, as at Hargobi, though some have been founded by opportunists taking advantage of government policy.

Ao Renqi, a researcher at the Inner Mongolia Academy of Social Sciences, who has long studied herding cooperatives, told chinadialogue: “We’re interested in cooperatives founded by the herders themselves. The cooperative tradition and spirit is the heart of Mongolian herding communes – and also offers a route to both protecting the grasslands and developing the economy.”

 

Zhou Wei is associate editor in chinadialogue’s Beijing office 

Homepage image from Brooks shows a meeting of an Inner Mongolian herding cooperative.

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Default thumb avatar
yunnan.chen

共同的悲剧?

从经济角度看,这是个非常好的例子,公共利益应该成为公众的,而不是将责任私有化,家庭承包责任制就是这么做的。社区合作,这种传统的方式是避免个人的巨大损失和社会悲剧的最好办法。

Tragedy of the Commons?

From an economic point of view, this is a really interesting example of a case where a public good is best kept public. Rather than privatising responsibility, which is what the Household Responsibility System does, the cooperative, traditional mechanisms are the best way to avoid high individual costs and a communal tragedy.

Default thumb avatar
drogpa

出了油镬却掉进火炉

在内蒙古的游牧民族能短暂地享受土地承包政策。迟早他们会步西藏游牧民族的後尘,被列入所谓的「新农村建设」。

「牧区发展交流论坛」在全中国的成立和推行 比设立206个牧场更能有效地保护游牧民族的文化、传统和牧场。

还有另一个问题:在内蒙正在衰落的牧场是否中国未来水源供应的一个忧虑,而在牧场之下又是否蕴藏了珍贵的资源? 如果两者皆不是的话,那麽游牧民族和牧民们当下还可继续享受他们的生活方式。

很好的一篇文章,请多多发文。

out of the frying pan in the fire

The nomads of the inner Mongolia, can for a short period of time enjoy the HHRS...sooner or later they too will end up like Tibetan nomads, under the flashy "new country side housing projects"!

'Herding cooperatives' should be promoted and formed throughout the PRCs. > 206 pastures in order to preserve the nomadic culture, tradition and the pastures.

Another question also looms?....whether the degradation of the pastures in the inner Mongolia is troubling the future water security of PRC or whether it holds any precious resources underneath..? If not (in both case) then for a time being the nomads & herders can still enjoy their lifestyle!

great article...keep posting

Default thumb avatar
sharina

游牧文化该怎样继续下去?

我读了这篇文章之后心情很复杂,因为我也是内蒙古牧民的孩子。东乌旗的政策和我们包头那边的不一样,我们那边正在实行的是禁牧政策,禁牧之后虽然有补贴但是这对部分靠养牧为生的牧民来说显然在收入上减少很多。但是对部分牧民来说到成了好事,因为不用再像以前那样辛苦了,只要等着领补贴就行,所以我们那个地方现在无所事事的人变很多,这些人当中也有我认识的人,见到他们的生活如此糟糕我不由的难过起来。很担心我们牧民的生活就这样继续下去,这样的话那我们的文化是不是也会跟着消失。

How dose nomadism culture continue?

I get a mixed feeling after reading this article, I'm a descendant of herdsmen from Inner Mongolia. Dongwu Qi(an administrative unit equivalent to a county elsewhere)adopts a different policy from that of Baotou where I live (a city in Inner Mongolia). In Baotou, pastry is forbidden. the The income of some hersmen living primarily on pasrty has sharply declined despite the subsidies. However, it is deemed blessedness by some herdsmen because they no longer have to work as hard as they used to. As a result, in Baotou there are many faineants waiting for the subsidies, some of whom I know .I felt sad seeing their life getting worse. I'm worried that we herdsmen would continue to lead such lives, therefor our culture would one day disappear.