中国与世界,环境危机大家谈

china and the world discuss the environment

  • linkedin group
  • sini weibo
  • facebook
  • twitter
envelope

注册订阅每周免费邮件
Sign up for email updates


文章 Articles

Is Europe breaking the law? (2)

Cheng Shuaihua

Readinch

China’s aviation industry has armoury available in its fight against Europe’s emissions policy, writes Cheng Shuaihua, concluding a two-part article.

article image
 

There are three levels at which China can respond to this challenge from Europe: legal, political and technical. I put the legal process at the top of the list, as it is the most reliable, and should start immediately. It can also become a bargaining chip in the political process. Lessons can be taken from the approach of the United States, where aviation industry associations and airlines are taking joint legal action. While using the Chicago Convention as a basis for action is problematic, as we saw in part one, the Chinese argument can focus on three other points.

First, the airlines can make use of regulations included in EU-China aviation agreements, in particular those related to fuel duties. Second, they can argue that the requirement that developing-nation airlines pay the same charges as European airlines is a breach of the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities set out in the Kyoto Protocol, which seeks to ensure rich nations bear a greater share of the burden in addressing climate change. According to that principle the responsibilities of airlines of developing nations including China should be different from those of airlines of developed nations, such as those within the European Union. The EU’s climate responsibilities are compulsory, while those of developing nations are voluntary and based on their degree of economic and social development.

Third, the climate targets set for international airlines by the European Union are higher than the global target set by the United Nations’ International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). In October 2010, the ICAO 37th Assembly produced a global emissions-reduction plan for the aviation industry, committing it to increasing fuel efficiency by 2% annually until 2050; establishing a global framework for promoting the development and use of sustainable replacement fuels; and producing a global standard for airplane carbon emissions by 2013.

Negotiation

Politically, the time is right for proposing talks. The US Air Transport Association is determined to continue its legal action against Europe and the recent ICAO decisions described above appear to have had some impact on the EU policymakers, who are starting to relax their position. A statement on October 9 said the EU was open to constructive dialogue with third party countries during the implementation of the EU-ETS, in particular on handling flights into the trading bloc from outside.

The outcomes to aim for through such dialogue are as follows.

The ideal result would be to have aviation emission cuts restricted to EU airlines only. In particular, airlines of developing nations such as China should be excluded. This can be argued for on the basis of the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, and supporting articles in bilateral aviation agreements.

If, however, China’s airlines are to be included, then the EU should be pressed to meet a number of conditions. These would include at the minimum the following four points. One, the release of a greater number of free emission permits, for example allowing a certain amount of growth every year until 2020, in order to guarantee that China’s airlines have room to expand in the EU market. Permits not used due to efficiency improvements or a reduction in the number of flights could be sold for profit on the EU carbon market.

Two, provision of technical support and aid from the European Union on aviation technology, carbon monitoring and management. Three, revenue from emission permits which China’s airlines are required to purchase in Europe should be earmarked for technical support for China. And four, China’s airlines should be allowed to purchase Chinese carbon offsets – certified by international bodies – such as forest carbon stores in the west of China as an equivalent to EU carbon permits. This would be a highly significant move, and is feasible.

If neither of the above outcomes can be agreed upon, then delayed entry to the EU-ETS can be requested – until the United Nations negotiation process reaches a legally-binding international climate agreement, for example; or until the ICAO reaches a deal specifying the actual aviation emission-reduction duties of individual nations. That would provide at least two or three years of space.

Finally, China can argue that the EU policy may create “carbon leakage”, the situation where an emissions-reduction policy in one country causes emissions to rise in another. Non-EU airlines may, to avoid purchasing emission permits, choose routes that avoid European airspace, for instance stopping in the Middle East – and thus increase aviation emissions.

Preparing the data

A response at the technical level is also very important, particularly on the issue of monitoring and checking airline emissions data.

It should be noted that, currently, all verification for the purposes of the EU-ETS must be done by EU-certified, independent, third-party verification bodies. According to industry insiders, these bodies usually verify emissions of factories and other facilities – they have no experience verifying aviation data. Nor is there yet a clear price-tag for verification of aviation emissions, as these bodies are unclear as to whether European verification staff will need to travel to China.

I believe it is essential that, prior to third-party verification, the airlines themselves establish highly capable and reliable teams to gather and analyse data to ensure as far as possible that data is beneficial for the airlines. Data for 2010 will not just determine quotas for 2012, but for at least the next nine years.

Turning to the WTO

On October 6, advocate general of the European Court of Justice Juliane Kokott issued a preliminary opinion on the US legal challenge, which found that the EU policy is valid. The court is likely to follow her opinion and rule that the EU-ETS is not in breach of international law. 

However, members of the World Trade Organisation may argue that the EU directive still violates WTO rules, and if they make a case on these grounds, the EU Directorate-General for Trade may intervene. That legal process has not yet started, but if the EU’s directive is implemented as planned next year, then countries including China and the United States may take the case to the WTO. 

But that process is much more complicated. WTO disputes are government affairs – industry associations and airlines cannot bring a case themselves. Moreover, WTO dispute resolution can only apply to existing policies, and when there is clear evidence that the policy has caused harm to the complainant. As the aviation ETS is not yet in operation, it is not yet possible to go down this path.

Cheng Shuaihua runs the Strategic Analysis Department at the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD).

This article was
originally published on the ICTSD’s Chinese website and is reproduced here with permission. Some information has been updated following consultation with the author. The views expressed in this article are the author's own and do not represent those of, and should not be attributed to, his organization.

Part one: China’s worst case scenario.

Homepage image by World Economic Forum shows José Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission.

评论 comments

5

评论 comments

中文

EN

嗨 Hi Guest user

退出 Logout /


发表评论 Post a comment

评论通过管理员审核后翻译成中文或英文 最大字符 1200

Comments are translated into either Chinese or English after being moderated. Maximum characters 1200

排序 Sort By:

航空业的碳补偿

碳补偿已经赶不上温室气体增长的速度了。

把碳补偿和森林、人工林联系到一起也是不恰当的,特别是少数民族拥有使用权的土地,在中国尤其难上加难。

审计飞机碳排放(如果可行的话)和森林以及人工林地(非永久性)的净碳储存量在一些国家将会受到严格的控制,这样一来其完整性就会受到质疑,就像森林管理的认证在那些国家也同样存在非议。

Offseting carbon emissions from aviation

Carbon offsets are no longer appropriate given the rate at which greenhouse gas emissions are increasing.

Linking them to forests or tree plantations is unlikely to be acceptable, particularly on land to which ethnic minorities have rights, and especially where (as in China) they are unlikely to be additional.

Auditing aircraft emissions and (if feasible) the net carbon stored in forests and plantations (which are not permanent) would be so tightly controlled in some countries that their integrity would be questioned – as is already the case concerning the certification of forest management in those countries.


注意了:航空业利用中外对话游说!

中外对话本应是中国和世界讨论环境问题的地方,为什么现在变成了中国航空业的游说平台?我觉得不太合适。

“最理想的结果是把航空业减排仅仅限于欧盟的企业,而不要扩展到欧盟以外的航空公司"。真的吗?为了有限的短期国家经济利益来说还凑合,从可持续发展的角度来说就不行了。

Attention: Aviation industry lobbying at chinadialogue!

Why is chinadialogue, a forum where China and the world are supposed to discuss the environment, now serving as a platform for Chinese aviation industry lobbying via ICTSD? Not very appropriate in my opinion.

"The ideal result would be to have aviation emission cuts restricted to EU airlines only" Really? Only from the perspective of limited short-term national economic interest, not from a sustainable development perspective.


回复 Redeor

Redeor 你好,
感谢你的回复。这篇文章是系列争鸣文章中的一篇。在此系列文章中,我们可以读到针对中国航企抗议欧盟碳交易系统的不同观点。如果你阅读此系列中别的文章,比如《空中激战》《中国专家谈中国航企对峙欧盟ETS》,你会读到不同于成帅华文章的观点。我们之所以会发布不同观点的文章,旨在让读者听到对于此事件的不同声音,以对此事件有全面的了解。
祝好。
Olivia Boyd

Reply to Redeor

Hi Redeor,
Thanks for your message. This piece was part of a debate series, in which various different arguments were presented and explored. If you read "Battle of the skies" and "The view from Chinese airspace", you'll see strong counter-arguments to Cheng Shuaihua's position. The idea was to try to better understand the thinking on both sides of the debate.
Best wishes,
Olivia Boyd


文章很好,非常感谢

成博士的文章对这个热点问题进行了深入地技术性分析。我太喜欢读它了!

Many thanks for this article

Dr. Cheng's article has very in-depth and technical analysis toward this hot topic. Very enjoying reading it!


敌对不是解决问题的最好方法

我相信欧盟这个政策的起点是好的,控制二氧化碳等温室气体的排放。但是,本文作者的含义似乎是:好的动机并不必然导致好的政策结果。
一是能否让人心悦诚服的执行。欧盟应该花时间从别人的角度考虑,如果需要得到别人的理解和尊重,那么也应当征求和尊重别人的意见。毫不动摇的坚持单边做法,使得良好的政策动机大打折扣。
二是这个政策也有一些漏洞,可能会增加转机和排放。比如从香港到法兰克福可以直飞,而且直飞比转机的排放少。但是欧盟的政策可能会造成与减排的政策目标相反的结果,因为该政策只计算直接进入或离开欧盟领地的那一段,也就是说,香港经中东转机的到法兰克福的航班虽然增加了排放,但是较少占用排放配额。
第三个问题是对发展中国家的利益关注。目前的约定是:发展中国家应当积极减排,但是没有强制义务,这是和工业化国家的历史责任有关。应当鼓励中国等加入这个碳交易体系,谈判形成一些灵活的安排,比如帮助中国形成行业减排试点等,这样才能使政策得到更好的执行,更好的达到欧盟想要达到的目标。
从来没有完美的政策。但是沟通谈判基础上形成的共赢的解决方案才可以可持续。单边做法不是领导力,而是被孤立。我同情欧盟的动机,也同情发展中国家的立场。应该由法律市场和谈判专家帮助,形成双方都能接受的方案。我相信这个方案肯定是存在的,只要双方拿出尊重和诚意。很高兴看到这个月中欧继续有磋商。

Fighting is not the best solution

I believe that EU means well with this policy - it wants to control the emission of greenhouse gas such as carbon dioxide (CO2). However, the idea expressed in this article seems to be: good motives do not necessarily lead to good outcomes.
The first problem is whether the policy could be enforced wholeheartedly. EU should put itself in others' shoes more often. If it wants to earn others' understanding and respect, then it should consult others and show respect for their opinions. Its resolute insistence on an unilateral approach makes its good intention much less realized than it expected.
Secondly, the policy itself has some loopholes, which could increase flight transfers and emissions. For example, a direct flight should be favored travelling from Hong Kong to Frankfurt, emitting less carbon than a connecting one. However, the EU's policy might result in an opposite situation, which is against its original aim - to reduce emissions. According to the policy, emissions are only calculated along the route when flights directly enter or leave EU European airspace. Hence, an airline from Hong Kong to Frankfurt which stops in the Middle East needs fewer emission permits, even though it increases aviation emissions.
The third problem is how much attention the EU pays to developing nations' interests. The convention now is that developing countries should take part in cutting emissions actively but it is not compulsory. This has something to do with industrialized nations' responsibility for emissions produced in the history. Nations like China should be encouraged to join in this carbon trading system; flexible arrangements should be reached through negotiation, such as helping China to set up pilot programs in cutting emissions. Only in this way can the EU's policy be better executed and its goal better achieved.
There is no perfect policy. Only win-win solutions based upon communication and negotiation can be sustainable. Unilateral methods adopted by the EU don't make it a leader; on the contrary, they make it isolated. I pity the EU's motive as well as developing nations' standpoint. Legal system and negotiators should intervene to help formulating policies acceptable to both sides. I believe such polices can be achieved as long as both sides show respect and sincerity. I am really happy to see China and Europe continue their talks this month.


合作伙伴 Partners

项目 Projects