中国与世界,环境危机大家谈

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Face to face with Apple

Zeng Hang

Readinch

The US technology company finally met with Chinese environmental campaigners, but their argument isn’t over yet, reports Zeng Hang.

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At 10am on November 15, five Chinese environmental groups visited Apple’s Beijing office to discuss supply-chain pollution with company representatives dispatched from the United States.

A series of reports published earlier this year by a coalition of campaigners, including Green Beagle, Friends of Nature, Envirofriends and the Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs, accused Apple of ignoring serious pollution in its China-based supply chain, causing a stir both inside and outside of China.

A number of NGO participants in the meeting later told 21st Century Business Herald that, while Apple had shown good faith on certain areas, the two sides continued to disagree over the extent to which the company should be open about corporate information, and that the coalition would continue to monitor Apple’s supply chain. For its part, Apple announced that it had launched investigations into 15 suppliers suspected of pollution.

The talks lasted three hours, during which the two sides crossed swords several times, according to participant accounts. Li Li from Envirofriends said that, at one point, discussions almost broke down.

The meeting was conducted with two supply-chain executives from Apple’s US headquarters, but attendees were asked not to reveal the employee’s names or job titles. The Apple ambassadors explained some of the company’s supply-chain regulations and gave an update on progress on its corporate social responsibility, before the two sides moved in on the core issue: pollution by Apple suppliers.  

The green groups said that they used the meeting to flag up pollution cases at more than a dozen suppliers as evidence of major failings in supply-chain management, while Apple admitted that oversights such as out of date water-quality standards may have created problems. The NGOs remained unimpressed by Apple’s reluctance to publicise supplier information and allow public supervision, they said, while Apple continued to stress that it can deal with the problems internally.

Apple told the NGOs that, contrary to some reports, it is closely involved with all aspects of its supply chain: Apple makes no distinction between first and second tier suppliers, purchases almost all materials itself and applies identical labour and environmental standards to all suppliers, the representatives said. If any supplier breaches Apple’s rules, they added, it will be ordered to make changes to its operations and, if those changes are not made, suppliers will be subject to further measures and orders may be cancelled.

But Apple’s supply chain is complex and accidents at associated factories cannot be completely eradicated, the representatives reportedly said. The poisoning of workers at touch-screen supplier Wintek is one such example. Apple’s representatives said the company has always instructed suppliers not to use toxic cleaning agent n-hexane, and that this now infamous incident was caused by poor ventilation at the factory. The NGOs said they were not satisfied with this explanation.  

Before this meeting, Apple had shown itself consistently unwilling to engage in talks with environmental groups. “Apple is a company that does things in a very low-key way,” one representative reportedly stressed at the meeting.

But the publication of the Chinese campaigners’ report in August this year put huge pressure on the Californian firm. The report documented “shocking” pollution in Apple’s supply chain, attracting attention from around the world.

The NGO coalition named 27 polluting companies they suspected to be affiliated with Apple in its report. To date, Apple has admitted that 15 of these are suppliers.

Feng Yongfeng, co-founder of Chinese NGO Green Beagle, was present at the meeting. He said that, after publication of the August report, Apple hired third-party auditors to investigate those 15 companies – but the investigation’s findings have not been released, nor has Apple promised that they will be.

On October 15, environmental problems were uncovered at Catcher Technology, which supplies Apple with laptop casings, and the government ordered a halt to production. Improvement works were carried out and manufacturing has since restarted. But production wasn’t halted due to a request from Apple, said Feng – it was public pressure that forced the local government to act.

The close relationship between Apple and its suppliers is an open secret in the industry – insiders allege that Apple often funds new factories for suppliers, and in return gets priority access to high-demand components.

But certain suppliers previously contacted by this newspaper argued that the main driver of pollution was Apple’s constant efforts to lower prices. They said Apple usually asks suppliers to cut prices every quarter and falling profits are forcing suppliers to reduce costs, which in turn leads to a reduction in spending on environmental protection.

Evidence of this profit decline can be seen in financial reports from Laibao High-Tech, which produces sensors for iPhone touch-screens. Its third quarter report shows operating income of 288 million yuan, down 10.88% year-on-year, and net profits of 84.3963 million yuan – a fall of 26.77%.

That weaker performance is mostly due to a fall in the price of touch-screen components. It’s estimated that the price of small and medium sized touch-screens has fallen by more than 25% since the start of the year, and this figure will go above 30% by the end of the year. Competition is fierce.

Yang Shengfan, deputy director of Taiwan’s Topology Research Institute, explained that Apple often asks suppliers to expand capacity before giving them orders. After they have done this, upstream suppliers face the threat of excess capacity – and so it is hard for them to refuse Apple’s demands for lower prices. In the end, the suppliers become closely controlled by Apple.

But you can’t blame Apple for everything, said Li Bo of Friends of Nature, China’s oldest environmental NGO, who was also present at the meeting last week: after all, the factories are in China. China needs to think about how to deal with these pollution issues under its own legal and supervisory regime, he said.

Zeng Hang is a reporter at 21st Century Business Herald, where this article was first published.

Homepage image by nabekor

 

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反映出毒苹果事件的两个矛盾

第一、是苹果公司自己:自称行事低调,却放任供应商高调污染,还不明确是否公布第三方核查报告。在社会责任方面的信息披露严重不透明与其国际声誉极不相符。
第二、是我国相当一部分的环保部门的不作为。既然是为人民服务的政府部门,大家都按规定办事,让苹果在华各供应商都老实工作,苹果还会这么嚣张么?

The poisoning of Apple workers reflects two contradictions

First is Apple corporation's own contradiction: they act like and call themselves low polluters, but their suppliers are high polluters. Furthermore, they didn't release the third party report to the public. In terms of social responsibility, this grave lack of public transparency of information does not correspond with Apple's international reputation.
Second is the fairly subdued behavior of China's Ministry of Environmental Protection. If this government ministry served the interests of the people, if everyone followed the rules and demanded that everyone of Apple's Chinese suppliers were honest and open, could Apple still act so arrogantly?


苹果与中国环保NGO会谈交锋激烈

作为一个消费者, 支持苹果等手机厂商的降价,但是不能以损坏环境为代价, 我觉得苹果应该多采购几家公司, 让他们自由竞争, 而不是一味压价。同时中国环保部门应该出台具体的环境政策和污染标准, 苹果产业链有污染的话应该由纳税人养着的政府部门来管, 而不是所谓的环保组织。

Face to face with Apple

As a consumer, I support producers of Apple and other mobile phones reducing their prices, but the loss of the environment is too high a price to pay; I feel that Apple should buy from a few more companies, and let them compete freely, rather than simply forcing prices down.

At the same time, the Ministry of Environmental Protection should bring out concrete environmental policies and pollution standards. If Apple's production chain is causing pollution, they should be supervised by a taxpayer-funded government ministry, rather than so-called environmental groups.


达尔问自然求知社 - 求助!

多年来,我希望测量一下我在美国佛罗里达州的Parkland城的空气污染负荷。不过我一直没能找到一个“廉价”设备。所以想请问达尔问自然求知社,以及各位相关人士,我在哪里可以买到他们所使用的测量2.5微米的空气微尘的设备?

GREEN BEAGLE - Please help!

For years I've wanted to measure the air pollution loads created in my city of Parkland FL USA. I haven't found a "cheap" device. Could the Green Beagle PLEASE, or someone affiliated with it, tell me where I can buy the device they use to measure 2.5 micron atmosphere?

[email protected]

Thanks,

S


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