中国与世界,环境危机大家谈

china and the world discuss the environment

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Religion and the environment in China

Martin Palmer

Readinch

Religion can play an important role in protecting the earth’s natural heritage, says Martin Palmer, who reports on the Buddhists and Daoists committed to conserving China’s sacred mountains and wild animals.
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My interest in China stretches back nearly thirty five years to my time working as a volunteer in a children’s home in Hong Kong in the early 1970s. It was then that I fell in love with Chinese language, history, philosophy and tradition and my life has been shaped by this ever since. I am a translator of Chinese classics such as the Yi Jing, the Dao De Jing and of Chinese myths and legends – for example about the Eight Immortals.

My interest in the environment goes back much further, to a mother who was passionate about nature and to the earliest days of what is now the world’s largest environmental organisation, the WWF, which I joined in its first few months as a schoolboy member.

It has been my fortune that I have been able to combine these two great passions and interests along with a third – that of the role of religion in contemporary cultures. I head the Alliance of Religions and Conservation (ARC), which is a secular foundation working with all the major religions of the world, helping them develop environmental programmes on their lands, in their forests, on their farms, through their investments, schools, media and as a result of their teachings, beliefs and practices. Founded eleven years ago, we work in more than 60 countries worldwide.

When we established ARC in 1995, one of the first areas where we were asked to work was in China, by the China Daoists Association. When we told people about this most of them looked at us with total incredulity. “You are trying to work with religion in China? Impossible. You want to help them engage with environmental issues in China? Doubly impossible.”

In the mid ‘90s, almost no one from secular groups outside China was working with religion in China and the environment was not an issue except with regards to cuddly pandas and a few other token species.

Today, the situation regarding religion has changed a bit. The World Bank, for example, now has a programme in Kunming with Buddhists, but the environmental situation has totally changed.

In the mid ‘90s, it was considered inappropriate to point out that the incredible growth of China and its consumerism, hunt for energy, building work and industrial expansion was taking place at the cost of the environment. A great deal of nonsense was spoken by those who knew no better about the Confucian world view in which progress was all, questioning authority was inappropriate and dissent unimaginable. Putting it simply, many outside China felt that China could never develop a home-grown environmental culture. For the business world, this was an excuse not to even mention it. For the environmental movement, this allowed them to tread so gently around the Chinese government that they never seriously raised any issues with the authorities. The result was a stand-off on these urgent issues which were simply put to one side as culturally insignificant, or inappropriate.

But religions in China, especially Daoism and Buddhism, were engaging with this and in powerful ways.

In 1995, the China Daoist Association (CDA) issued its first ever Statement on the Environment. This led to ARC being able to start work assisting the Daoists in putting into practice the insights, beliefs and values that this astonishingly powerful statement had spelt out.

Aided by ARC, the Daoists undertook a survey of their major sacred mountains. What this study showed was that because of the inherent sacredness of places such as Hua Shan, Tai Shan, Emei Shan or Qingqing Shan, these had survived in a better ecological state than comparable areas which were not considered sacred by the general population. This had proved to be effective, even during the worse excesses of the Cultural Revolution. Temples and shrines, statues and sacred books had been destroyed, but the mountains had still survived in a better environmental state than other areas. This has recently been confirmed by a study undertaken by WWF and ARC.

The joint CDA and ARC project also discovered that where the religious communities were still present on a sacred mountain in significant numbers, the protection of the environment was also better. Putting it simply, most park wardens clock in at 8am and go home around 5pm. The illegal loggers and poachers tend to come when the wardens are not around. On a sacred mountain, it is quite likely that a Daoist monk will be running up the mountainside at 3am or meditating in the middle of the forest at midnight. The active presence of religious people on a mountain helps to protect it.

In 1998, this study helped the management committee of Hua Shan to agree to return most of the temples on the mountain to the CDA in order, in part, to better protect the mountain’s environment.

The success of this work led the Buddhist Association of China to undertake with ARC a similar programme on their sacred mountains and the same conclusions were drawn about the importance of active life on the sacred mountains. 

Today, these developments have gone even further. The CDA and ARC, assisted by the Dutch group EMF, have rebuilt a key temple on the sacred mountain of Taibaishan in Shaanxi, destroyed in the Cultural Revolution, as a Daoist Ecology Education Temple. Here, Daoists are being trained in environmental management of sacred mountains, environmental education for pilgrims and visitors and will develop information and education packs for use throughout China, but especially in urban areas. A set of wall posters on Daoism and Ecology have already been produced. In June this year a new network came into being, the Daoist Temples’ Alliance on Environment and Education, designed to coordinate and develop projects across China through the medium of Daoism.

In Buddhism, a similar movement is under way with plans to develop a Buddhist ecology temple centre in Wutai Shan and to develop Wutai Shan as a model of integrated environmental management.

At the same time, ARC, in collaboration with WWF International, is developing a major programme on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and especially the illegal importing of Asian big cats’ bodies to China for use in TCM. In 2001, Daoism made the use of endangered species in TCM an excommunicable offence. Building on this and on Daoist research into alternative TCM prescriptions which don’t use endangered species, linked to Buddhist prohibitions on using illegal TCM, we hope to make a considerable impact at the popular, folk-medicine level, as well as in curbing demand generally.

But perhaps the biggest development is one that no one, not even ARC could have foreseen eleven years ago. And this is the role that the government is asking the Buddhists and Daoists to play in making people aware and responsible for environmental protection.

China has awoken to the threat of environmental degradation in ways unimaginable just a few years ago. Gone is the blasé notion that growth was all that mattered. The Communist Party now finds itself with a nation, hell bent on growth, on consumerism and with a corresponding loss of a sense of community and responsibility. Concerned with what the party has called “spiritual culture” – meaning higher values and a sense of wider responsibility -- the religions have been asked to help reinstate a sense of a purpose beyond just self and consumerism.

Hence, in April this year, the Buddhist Association of China, in conjunction with the Chinese government, held a unique gathering of Buddhists from all over the Chinese world on the theme of social issues, and the environment was one of the key topics. Arising from this is a new range of projects and commitments by Buddhists across China to address issues such as deforestation, urban sprawl, waste, energy and moral values related to the environment. Next year, a similar forum will bring Daoists together, again to address these social issues.

What is going on?

The reason ARC works with the major religions is simple. Dynasties, governments and economic orders come and go. But the Buddhists and Daoists will still be there, just as they always have been. They have been on the sacred mountains for at least two thousand years; they are likely to be there still in two thousand years time. A programme developed with structures and organisations and beliefs such as these can shape the environment for centuries. That is why the Chinese government, having tried to destroy religion during the Cultural Revolution, now seeks religion’s help in restoring some sense of wider values. Buddhism and Daoism have been constants for generations and will be so for generations to come.

Perhaps the best way to capture all this is to quote from the Daoists statement on the environment:

“People should take into full consideration the limits of nature’s sustaining power, so that when they pursue their own development, they have a correct standard of success. If anything runs counter to the harmony and balance of nature, even if it is of great immediate interest and profit, people should restrain themselves from doing it, so as to prevent nature’s punishmentDaoism has a unique sense of value in that it judges affluence by the number of different species. If all things in the universe grow well, then a society is a community of affluence. If not, this kingdom is on the decline.”


The author: Martin Palmer is secretary general of the Alliance of Religions and Conservation. His translation of the 4th century BC philosopher Zhuang Zi will be published by Penguin Classics this November.

Homepage photo by Elizabeth Thomsen

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中国根本没有环境文化.

读罢此文,感慨颇多.中国的政府,企业有多少能为环境着想?一味的求发展已使大部分人忘记了自己生存的空间.好在中央认识到可持续发展的重要性.但从中央到地方,从高层到普通平民百姓,灌输环保的思想是又何其难?规束人们的行为是又多么的不易!感慨那些默默无闻民间环保组织和宗教组织为中国环境所做的付出.你们是可敬的.

China has no environmental culture at all

I was very moved when I read this article. How much consideration can China's government and industry give to the environment? The singular pursuit of development has already led the majority of people to forget about their own living space. Fortunately, China's central government has recognized the importance of sustainable development. Yet how difficult is it to transmit the idea of environmental conservation from the central government to local governments, from the upper ranks of society to the average citizen? It is by no means easy to regulate people's behavior by legal means! I am moved by the effort that environmental conservation and religious organizations, unknown to the general public, have invested in China's environment. You merit respect.


寺庙及树木

马丁:帕默斯顿一篇颇有意思的文章让我想到欧内斯特:威尔逊的杰作《中国:花园之母》(1929)中一个评论:“普通人民意识不到宗教社会对树木保护的卓越贡献。在中国,土地被最大程度在利用来耕作,因此,没有佛僧及道士及时的干预,相当多的树木肯定早已就灭绝了。”难道最近没有出版一本描写全国寺庙树木的书吗?比如,关于北京潭柘寺中有一千多年树龄的银杏树呢?欧义恩

Temples and Trees

Martin Palmer's stimulating article reminds me of a remark in Ernest H Wilson's classic, "China - Mother of Gardens" (1929): "The world at large does not realise how deeply it is indebted to religious communities for the preservation of many trees. …In China, where every available bit of land is devoted to agriculture, quite a number of trees must long ago have become extinct but for the timely intervention of Buddhist and Taoist priests."

Does any book in print (Chinese or English) describe temple trees throughout China, like the "King of Trees" gingko - over 1000 years old - in the Tanzhi Temple in Beijing?

Iain Orr ([email protected])


根本的否定是片面的

社会主流可以代表中国,支流也能代表中国。仅从一些现象就判断中国没有环境文化,是对自身价值的一种否定。毛主席当初还说“星星之火还能燎原”,只要自己,一个中国人,还在为环境而努力,那么,中国的环境文化就还在。

Complete denial is biased

The mainstream of society can represent China, but other branches of society can as well. To judge, based only on certain phenomena, that China has no environmental culture is a denial of one's own worth. Chairman Mao once said that "little flames can still set the prairie ablaze". If only you, one Chinese person, would still make an effort for the environment, then China's environmental culture would still exist.


一位姓黄的读者

一次偶然的机会,浏览了这个网站,它不仅信息量足而且质量高,讨论了一系列与中国环境保护相关的话题,使我感到非常高兴。希望它能越办越好。

p c huang

I am very excited to come across such an informative and high quality website devoted to Chinese environment issues. Keep up the good work!


意外的惊喜

我使用Google搜索“ 持续对话”的时候发现了这个网站, 真是让我惊喜。我是一名大学学生, 正准备着硕士入学考试, 因此正是迫切需要寻找正确的方式来提高英语的时候。我写下这些的时候, 感觉非常的兴奋。其中可能又一些错误,但这是我的真实感觉。我会经常来这个网站。

unexpected surprise

It is a big surprise for me when I encounter this web site as I used google searching SUSTAIN DIALOG.I am a college student,and preparing the postgraduate entrance examination ,so it is high time to find a proper way to improve my English.I feel extremely
exciting when I write these lettles.Some mistakes maybe,this is my true feeling.I will get onto this site as often as possible.


未来的希望

政府现在已经在控制污染。我们开始使用许多先进的设备产生可持续使用的能源,如风能,太阳能,还有水能。同时,越来越多的人们认识到了环境保护的重要性,我认为未来的情况可能不会那么糟糕。

Prospects for the future

The govenment has tried to control pollution now . For example, we began to use many advanced facilities to generate renewable enegy, such as wind power, solar power, wind power, even hydro-enegy. Meanwhile , more and more people realize the importence of protecting environment . I think the situation will not be so bad in the future.


每个人都要加入

目前环境问题对我们国家现在来说还很棘手。在很多地方,一味追求发展还是当地政府的主导思想,不过情况还是在不断向好的方向发展,越来越多的人意识到环境被破坏可能导致的恶果。我想每个有这种忧患意识的人都应该参加到宣传环保的行列里来,从身边做起,带动更多的人参与保护我们的环境!

Everyone should participate!

For the time being, environmental issues are still intractable in China. In various aspects, local government still needs improvement. However, the condition still remains positive, the public realises that environment destruction could bring big dangers. In my opinion, everyone should be aware of this and should also take part in promoting environmental protection. Start from those next to you, encourage more people to join us to protect our environment!


信仰规范人的言行

我本人就是一个在中国从事自然环境保护工作的中国人,在多年到各地做项目的过程中,明显地感到在那些有着信仰的地区,比如藏教、天主教、佛教、道教,比没有信仰的地方,人们的言行及对待周围的环境和生物都要温和友善的多,并且当地百姓对于公共问题的参与度也要大的多,因为他们认为公共问题也与他个人有很大的关系。而在没有浓烈信仰影响的地方,尤其是些大城市,人们之间的冷漠、自我,常常使得只要搭个手就能解决的问题变得非要完成一套繁冗而且又费时又费财又搭精力的程序后,还不一定能解决得很好。我想说的是,不只是环境保护,一些社会问题要想有效的解决,从人们的精神教育层面着手,让每个人从内心就是从一个善良的角度出发去做事,矛盾也就好解决了,甚至会大大的减少。
笔名:在路上

Beliefs can normalize our behaviors.

I am a Chinese person dedicated to environmental protection in China. Through years of working on projects in different places, I have a strong feeling that in regions with religions such as Tantrism, Catholicism, Buddhism and Taoism, people are generally better behaved and more actively involved in efforts addressing public concerns. This is because they believe that public issues are closely related to their own interests. On the contrary, in places without strong religious beliefs, especially the large cities, the cold and self-centered inhabitants usually make simple tasks into complicated procedures, requiring investment of time, money and efforts with no secured results. What I want to say is not only about environmental protection, but also about other social problems. In order to find out effective solutions, we need to start from education and the way of thinking among different people. We need to let them do things in a benevolent way. Facing contradictions, we will have an easier job.

Name: Zailushang ("On the way")


宗教学学生

我目前正在修宗教学课程,因此,非常感兴趣在于宗教对环境保护所作出的贡献。同时,不晓得有多少人关心这一问题的存在。

Student of Religious Study

I am studying Religious course now, so I have great interested about how religions can provide us a better understanding about the protection of environment. Also, don't know how much population are concern about this issue.


精彩的课题

宗教和环境之间的关系是相当令人兴奋的课题。基督教、佛教、天主教、回教和其他宗教对人们的行为举止都有巨大的影响,同时,在于他们对全球环境的观点来保护这个星球,不仅要政府、非政府组织和政府间组织之间共同的努力,但也需要宗教组织来影响每个人所扮演的角色。(陈佳芝)

Great topic

The relation between religion and environment is quite an stimulating topic. Christianity, Buddhism, Catholicism, Islam and all the others greatly affect people's behavior and their world view on the environment. To protect the earth not only needs the effort of government and NGOs but also the religious groups to lubricate the behaviour of differnt actors. ( chen jiazhi )


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