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The denim capital of the world: so polluted you can’t give the houses away

It makes a third of all jeans sold in the world, but the pollution is so bad in Xintang, south-west China, that local people refuse to work in its textile industries

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Workers in Jiuyu Village in Xintang make jeans in a large hangar. The workers produce denim clothing by hand and then load it onto lorries.

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Every morning workers have to remove the stones used to stone-wash the denim from chemically polluted water. The bleach and dyes are bad for the environment and affect the workers' health. Many of the workers find that they have rashes and their fingers turn blue from the dye.

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Huge amounts of polluted water pour out untreated from the factories straight into the East River. Xintang produces over 1,000 brands of denim wear, causing severe pollution.

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The polluted water that spills out from the factories is full of lint from the denim which blocks pipes and valves; much of the water pours straight into ditches and eventually into the East River, which is the source of drinking water for millions of inhabitants of Guangzhou.

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Greenpeace workers take samples of mud from a polluted ditch in Dadun Village in Xintang.

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A worker in a denim washing department. Dyeing and bleaching are the biggest contributors to pollution in the denim manufacturing process.

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Xintang has grown into China's biggest denim manufacturing base. Since the 1980s a complete production chain has been developed; spinning, dyeing, weaving, finishing, printing, cutting and washing all take place here.

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Advertisements for jobs in Xintang's factories can be seen on every street corner. Thousands of factories in the town have attracted workers from all over China. Three hundred million items of denim clothing are produced here each year, employing 220,000 people.

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For some industrially developed towns in the Pearl River Delta economic development comes at a high environmental price. water, soil and air pollution.

Xintang is the denim capital of the world. One in three pairs of jeans sold globally is made in this industrial town, in Guangdong province. At first sight its production statistics are impressive: the factories there produce 300 million denim articles a year, employing 220,000 people. Around two-thirds of the denim clothing made in China is produced in Xintang.

But Xintang is undergoing a crisis. Raw material costs are rising, it's hard to raise capital, labour costs are continually increasing, and there's a lack of well-known brands. Yet the town’s most serious problem is obvious from a local saying: "Xintang is so badly polluted that you can't give away houses for people to live there."

The water in the East River in Xintang has turned blue and smells strange. Under the hot sun, a local man, Dong Yaoming (not his real name), points at a map and says, "This stretch [of pollution] is definitely caused by the bleach factory. Only those factories which dye denim emit such filthy water. They spill the water from dyeing straight into the East River."

Sixteen years ago he would go swimming with his girlfriend in the East River. "But now, I wouldn't if you paid me."

Making jeans involves a number of stages, including design, washing, adding rivets, cutting and packaging. Washing makes the cloth look old and gives it texture. Whether a pair of jeans looks fashionable, medium-range or cheap mainly depends, apart from the cotton and the design, on how it is washed. But the waste water from the washing mainly goes untreated into the river. Xintang's Dadun Village waste water treatment plant has been closed for over a year.

"Denim washing factories are a dime a dozen in Xintang these days,” explains Dong. “Last year the township government made a fuss about cleaning them up, and moved about 80 of them to the new Xinzhou Environmental Industry Park. But there were lots of small factories which didn't know where to get rid of their waste water, so they secretly poured it back into the river. If it didn't rain for a few days, you would find that the water turned dark blue.”

Next to the Nizi Bridge in Xintang there are piles of blue fluff like the lint which accumulates in the filter of a domestic washing machine. It has rained in the last few days and there are clear signs of blue dye in the water.

In November 2010 Greenpeace published a survey which found that at three sampling sites in Xintang, the amounts of lead, copper and cadmium in the riverbed exceeded national "soil environmental quality standards". This included a sample of river mud with cadmium levels 128 times over the limit and another where the water pH level was 11.95.

Welcome to the “environmental” industrial park

Local people are well aware of the pollution from the denim industry, but incomers seeking work and people in downstream areas often have little idea of the damage being caused.

Xintang's first dye mill was opened in Dadun Village. It polluted the river and local people were furious. From 2006 they started to put Xintang under some sort of government control and gradually began moving denim washing and dyeing plants to an environmental industrial park in Xizhou Village on the west side of town.

There is clearly nothing "environmental' about this environmental industrial park. Its main roads are noisy with the roar of boilers, the air stinks of sulphur and ditches are full of dark blue water. Trees along the road have strips of blue cloth hanging from them, the dust in the roads is light blue. The water in all the streams in the area apart from one is black and stinking and the White River is the worst; the slow flowing water is as black as Chinese ink.

In 1996 Xizhou Village had fertile soil and was full of fruit trees and well known as a fishing village. Now there is almost no sign of farming. Instead it's an industrial park with oil tanks, a power station and a waste water treatment plant.

Greenpeace's head of water pollution prevention and treatment Zhao Yan said, "Xintang's denim industry started in Dadun Village, but now Xizhou has replaced Dadun and that's where most complaints are coming from."

Because of the pollution local people are unwilling to work in this "dangerous" industry even for 2,000 yuan (US$325) a month. Almost all the people working in these factories are from other provinces. Xintang has a population of 220,000 people with local residence cards [hukou], while the number of immigrants amounts to 500,000. In 2011 there were riots in the town over the treatment of migrant workers by local officials.

Yang Ming (not his real name) who works in the Ocean Cloth Washing Factory worked in a lock factory in Lishui in Zhejiang province until six months ago, where he earned 2,000 yuan a month. One day he got a phone call from a friend in Xintang who told him he could earn 5,000 yuan (US$815) a month in the factory.

"After I had worked in the cloth washing factory for a couple of months I realised that dyeing and washing involved using lots of chemicals. Local people told me that people who work for long in this job can't have children," Yang said.

Although all Yang does in the factory is pressing, he breathes the same air as everybody else. Another group of workers are known for their bad smell because their clothes smell of potassium permanganate which is sprayed on the denim to make it look pre-used.

"When it's hot in the summer, the spray fills the air and people come out in rashes," Yang said.

Nobody told Yang anything about the harmful substances used in the factory, which made him all the more worried. Most of the workers are temporary labourers who aren't given a contract to sign and don't have any insurance. They don't receive their first wages for three months, so if they feel ill after the first month they have to wait two more months until they are paid.

Apart from the health of the workers, there are also concerns about drinking water for people living downriver. The East River is the source of drinking water for several million people living in Guangzhou. Even more seriously, the polluted water is carried further downriver, threatening the water security of the cities of Dongguan and Shenzhen.

This article was first published by DEEP magazine. Photos by Lu Guang.

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评论 comments

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

我的心在痛

这简直就像在看恐怖片!

My heart hurts

This is just as bad as watching a horror movie. I can't even.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

心痛

心痛。我想知道人类还能为多少事业打拼,特别是当今人类道德下滑如此严重。

painful

Painful. Wonder how many causes can a man take up especially if the rate of decay by man himself is so alarming.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

真可怜

我很希望能够尽一份力

Such a pity

I really hope we can do something

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

现在必须做出选择

政府必须立即做出有益于生态的决策,否则就太晚了!我已经听过很多遍“等我们像西方国家一样富裕时,就能过上干净的生活” 这类的话。但是西方国家从未有过如此严重的污染,即便是西方史上最严重的污染——1952年伦敦雾霾事件,其污染程度都还比北京每日的污染水平要低。如果毫无对策,那么为了生活和呼吸新鲜空气,很多人将被迫离开中国。但谁会欢迎他们呢?

Choices must be made now.

The government has make serious choices in favor of ecology, and it has to be done now, later will be too late ! I've heard many times "we will clean when we will be rich just like western countries" but western countries have never ever been so polluted, even 1952 London during the great smog, which was the strongest pollution that ever happened in any western country, was below the level of pollution on an average day in BeiJing.
If nothing is done many people will be forced to leave China if they simply want to live and breathe. But who will welcome them ?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

damn son

shit liek thys es kinda bad,man

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

oh no

only one thing left to do... complain on the internet!

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

anonamis

This is shocking that there willing to risk there life and there country for a shifty wage a month and bad health

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

CUP & PENNY

Wow. Thank you for this article. Powerful quotes from the local workers.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

CUP & PENNY

Wow. Thank you for this article. Powerful quotes from the local workers.

What consumers can do:
-Stop buying jeans treated in this way
-OR start asking the suppliers questions

What designers/clothing companies can do:
-Demand and subsidize improvements to the factory facilities they use for production
-Research where the fabric they use comes from and what the conditions are like for the workers

What factories can do:
-Communicate with others factories and combine efforts to improve

What governments/agencies can do:
-Require QR tags on all garments, with a rating for ecological safety and workers' rights

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

Global issue

This is a global issue. We all share the air and water. We are killing this planet. All countries should be made to be responsible for the damage they do. We should clean up our mess and have a good think about what we leave future generations