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Stopping the sandstorms

Beijing is choking as dust sweeps in from China’s arid, ecologically-degraded west. Jiang Gaoming investigates, and finds that efforts to restore the western grasslands are failing.

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In Beijing, the weather forecast says that more sandstorms are on the way. The capital was hit by four sandstorms in March, and even Shanghai was recently smothered by dust clouds from the north. Television reports now describe these events as “sandy weather”, rather than “sandstorms”. But whatever you call them, they are becoming ever more frequent visitors to Beijing in springtime.  

While everyone is cursing the weather, I find myself worrying: how many tonnes of soil are being lost? And how long will it be before there is nowhere in China for plants to take root? Academics argue to what extent these sandstorms are “imports” from Mongolia and the former Soviet Republics, or whether they are the “domestic” products of the arid deserts and damaged grasslands of China's west. But either way, there is no denying the degree of environmental degradation in western China over the last three decades. Regardless of whether the capital’s weather comes from beyond its borders, China needs to put measures in place to restore the grasslands and reduce the risk of sandstorms.  

Sixty billion yuan has been invested in projects to control the sandstorms that are hitting northeastern China. Tree-planting projects have also been running for 30 years across north China. But why haven't they worked? And more importantly – what will?

To answer this question, let’s first consider the difference between trees and grass. Ecologists look at vegetation in terms of its quantity and the area it covers. In China’s deserts and grasslands, grass is by far the most common form of vegetation, followed by scrub and then trees. On the Xilinguole grasslands, for example, trees account for only 0.87% of the total vegetation. The current strategy – to plant trees to help with problems caused by a lack of grass – contradicts principles of ecological management. In fact, our repeated calls for change have now resulted in more attention being placed on scrub. Scientists agree that millions of years ago these areas were once covered with trees, but this is the distant past – no amount of spending will bring ancient forests back. In fact, grass is much more effective than trees at stopping sandstorms, and it does not need to be planted. Simply protect it, and it will grow. Trees use up groundwater, while grass uses only rainwater. Grass is denser and fixes the soil in place; it also keeps the ground moist by retaining precipitation, meaning there is no dust to blow away – something trees cannot do. 

Secondly, we need to consider where we are focusing our sandstorm-control efforts. Currently, our work ends up being concentrated in areas that are easy to reach and monitor: regions that are accessible by road. Lots of money has been spent, with some good results. But nobody asks questions about the very remote, ecologically-degraded areas that are less accessible, but have more responsibility for sandstorms. I once asked a local forestry official why they were not using aerial sowing techniques to rehabilitate these areas. His answer was simple: “Who would notice?” Current schemes are designed to be seen by the officials who approve their funding. Do not get too excited by those recovered grasslands and forests you see alongside the highways; they only cover 10% of the total affected area. The other 90% causes the continuing sandstorms.

Thirdly, we need to look at the relationship between man and nature. Arid and semi-arid areas can only support one or two people per square kilometre. In China, population density in these areas is over 10 people per square kilometre. The original inhabitants were nomadic, and would move in search of grass and water, giving the grasslands a chance to recover. But now they have settled, increasing the pressure on the environment – and inevitably damaging it. Measures are needed to move this scattered population into towns and cities; funds for ecological management should be used to this end.

Fourthly, we must reconsider the relationship between ecological management and poverty relief. Sandstorms are caused by the consumption of grass by livestock, by the clearing of grasslands for crops and by deforestation. At present, sandstorm-control programmes have little regard for the lives of local people. The money that is being spent brings them scant benefit, and only helps the people that receive the funding directly. My rough calculations show that spending on major sandstorm control projects amounts to around 326 yuan (US$42) per mu (666.67 square metres). In the south of Inner Mongolia that works out to almost 500,000 yuan (around US$64,705) per household. If as little as one-tenth of that figure was actually spent on getting the locals to give up their livestock and plant trees, there would be no danger of sandstorms. And the locals would still end up better off – at present, none of this funding reaches them, and most struggle to earn 10,000 yuan (US$1,294) per year. In one part of Inner Mongolia, a fortune has been spent on restoring the grasslands, but no one can come up with the 10,000 yuan needed to retain it. 

Finally, we need to ask questions about the relationship between China’s east and west. At present, much of China's livestock is in the west, in ecologically-vulnerable areas such as Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and Tibet. Ideally, these animals would eat straw, which is a by-product of agriculture. But all of the straw is in the east, in provinces such as Shandong, Henan and Hebei, which have a far greater production capacity for animal fodder than the grasslands – 50 to 100 times greater, in fact. This holds back the development of livestock farming. Straw in the east is simply burnt off, while degraded ecosystems in the west struggle to support livestock. The largest source of income for the west is funding for reforestation and environmental protection projects, with highly marked-up animal products coming second. These products cost five to 10 times as much to produce than they would in agricultural areas with better conditions. China’s west should not develop its animal farming further, or sooner or later the grasslands will be grazed bare, leaving the rest of the country to pick up the bill for its recovery.

Can China stop the sandstorms? If we do not take heed, maybe not. Of course, it may not be too long before all the soil is blown away. That would put an end to the capital’s sandstorms, but it might also put an end to Beijing.


Jiang Gaoming is a professor at the Chinese Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Botany. He is also vice secretary-general of the UNESCO China-MAB (Man and the Biosphere) Committee and a member of the UNESCO MAB Urban Group.

Homepage photo by Ben

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评论 comments

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

多频繁?

我想知道这样的沙尘暴有多频繁

how often?

I want to know how often the dust sweeps happens?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

还好,今年的沙尘暴都还不太大

也许今年强大的沙尘暴还在后面。本来我想离开北京去上海,看来在哪儿都一样。总有一天,沙尘暴可以全球同步,谁都无处可逃。

The sandstorms this year are not too heavy

There might be heavier sandstorms later this year. I was planning to move to Shanghai from Beijing, but now it seems to be of no difference. There will finally be one day when sandstorms are globally synchronized, and no one can run away to anywhere.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

谁的责任?

怎么说这个问题呢?这种现象的出现是谁的责任?政府!

who's responsibility?

how to introduce this problem? who's responsible for this phenomenon? governments!

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

原因是什么?

怎样导致这个问题的?

reason?

What causes the issue here?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

原因?

为什么过去的30年会糟糕成这样?是因为人口压力?管制缺失?还是发展模型?我看到了一些内蒙古的图片,羊绒工业的发展造成羊的饲养量大大超过土地可以承受的范围。现在,它们在饥饿中度日,当别的东西日渐消亡的时候只好以同伴的皮毛为食。看起来汉发展模型对这些脆弱的地区是极具破坏力的。几个世纪以来,蒙古人、西藏人、新疆人、满人和其他人都和他们的土地和平共处——富饶的草原和森林——但是汉人接手以后他们制造了沙漠。东北的森林所剩无几,蒙古的草原变成荒漠,青海的草原正步后尘。南希

causes??

Why has it become so much worse in the last 30 years? Is it population pressure? Lack of control? the development model? I have seen some terrible images from Inner Mongolia where the growth of the cashmere industy has means that far more goats have been bred than the land can support.. now they are starving and eating each other's coats while everything else dies. It seemthat the Han model of developemnt is evastating to theese fragile regions. For centuries the mongolians, Tibetans, Uighurs, Manchus and others lived in harmony with their land -- rich grassland and forests -- but when the Han take over they create deserts. There is nothing left of the Manchurain forests, the Mongolian grasslands are desert and the grasslands of Qinghai are going the same way
nancy

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

给谁看?

这篇文章中最让人震惊的是这句引语,他们不屑于在离公路远的地方飞播造林因为领导们看不见。这是道德腐败的表现,真让人沮丧。如果治理工人不愿意真心实意的做这份工作,他们就该被炒鱿鱼。为什么中国没有人就这些官员的问题大声疾呼呢!

who would notice?

The most shocking thing about this article is the quote about not bothering to do any rehabilitation far from the road because the bosses wouldn't notice. This is a sign of moral corruption that is truly depressing. If people who work in conservation can't be bothered to do their work sincerely, they should be fired. Why is there not an outcry in China about these officials!

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

轮回

社会是个大的轮回。沙化、荒漠化是大自然给予人类没有合理利用资源的报答。那么现在社会对环境的态度表明人们受到的惩罚还没有到一定的程度。所以我们需要做的事情就是努力让人知道危害的结局就可以了。其实每个人都能做好环保。只是很多人不愿意做还是不知道做,当然也有知道了不做的或在破坏的。那么我们的政府部门就应该制定法律的武器去管理和制止这些行为,法律的规划里也应加进去民权监督和民权的扩大成分,使每个老百姓都有能力做环保的同时也有能力管理和制止破坏行为。

Reincarnation

Society is a huge process of reincarnation. Desertification is what human beings pay to the nature for exploiting natural resources. Now people’s attitude shows that this price is not significant enough. Thus what we need to do is to try to inform people of the hazardous consequences. In fact, everyone can contribute to environment protection. Just many people are not willing to do, or ignorant of doing, that. For sure, some are aware of the situation, but are not taking any action, or even contribute to the destruction. Then, our government shall use laws and regulations to administer and stop these doings. Laws and regulations shall involve elements such as effective supervision and monitoring from the people, to entitle every citizen the capacity of protecting the environment and the right to stop destruction.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

做点什么!!!!!!

惨不忍睹

Do Something!!!!!!!

Thats terrible

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

沙漠化形成与扩张的根本原因

沙漠化形成与扩张的根本原因,就是荒漠生态系统(包括沙漠、戈壁系统、干旱、半干旱地区的草原系统、森林系统和湿地系统)的人为破坏所致,是对该系统中的水资源、生物资源和土地资源强度开发利用而导致系统内部固有的稳定与平衡失调的结果。以往,我们一手植树种草,通过生物措施和工程措施防治沙漠化,另一只手却破坏荒漠生态系统,制造新的沙漠化土地。事实上,正是由于荒漠生态系统的破坏,尽管我们营造了“三北”防护林,实施了防沙治沙工程,却仍然未能在整体上遏制住沙漠化扩张的步伐。可以说,近半个世纪来,沙暴频频的真正原因,并非人工植被营造太少,而是天然植被破坏过甚。小环境的局部改善,抵消不了大环境的整体逆变。
有鉴于此,我们有必要调整防沙治沙战略,从片面重视发展人工植被转到积极发展人工――天然乔灌草复合植被;从单纯保护绿洲到积极保护包括绿洲在内的整个荒漠生态系统。只有重建荒漠生态系统,才能从根本上遏制住沙漠化扩展的势头,扭转防沙治沙和治理水土流失工作中的被动局面,也才能切实有效地改善我国西北地区的大生态、大环境。

Causes for expanding desertification

The overexploitation of water, biological and soil resources by man in deserts is the fundamental reason for desertifiction and its expansion.

On one hand, we are planting more trees to improve the ecosystem in deserts; On the other hand, we are destroying the system by other activities. This why China has yet to check the worsening desertification through the massive sand shield forestation programme in northern China.

During the last 50 years, sand storms in China has been caused by the destruction of plants.

So I think desertification can only be checked by the rehabiliation of the ecosystem in deserts, to actually improve the environment in northwest China.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

代价有多大?

要失去多少沙土、多少生命、工作和事业才能使人们开始做些事情?我们需要立即采取行动。我们不能等到2050年完成治理。我们现在就得行动!

How much does it take?

How much land, how many lives, jobs, and careers need to be lost to get people to do something? We need to take action now. We can't wait till 2050 for the "remedy" to be completed. We need to act now!