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中国高级官员承认NGO的重要作用

      

国家发展改革委副主任解振华在天津与中国NGO会面(右一费晓静,右二卢思骋)

        中国负责气候变化的高级官员解振华在天津称赞中国NGO在环境保护和应对气候变化方面,发挥了重要作用。在此之前,中国高级官员极少公开称赞NGO。

        解振华是在国务院领导下负责气候谈判和节能减排的最高级别官员。10月8日下午,这位中国发改委副主任与部分NGO见面,畅谈两个小时。他希望经常和中国NGO交换意见,欢迎NGO监督政府工作。

       包括“中外对话”、阿拉善SEE协会、山水、自然之友、绿色和平中国办公室在内的60多家中国NGO参加了这次气候谈判天津会议,并史无前例地组织了20多场边会。中国NGO在大型国际活动中共同亮相,这也是规模最大的一次。

       中国第一家环境NGO“自然之友”于1994年成立,但当时中国公民社会的发展非常缓慢,2000年之后,NGO大量涌现,其中最活跃的领域是环境、公共健康和扶贫。中国政府对NGO的发展充满矛盾,明知NGO所代表的“公众参与”是大势所趋,NGO可以帮助解决这些领域的社会矛盾,但又心怀疑虑。因此中国NGO发展并不顺利,例如注册困难,很多NGO只能注册为公司。

       解振华原是中国环保总局局长,在他任职期间,环保总局副局长潘岳大力支持环境NGO参与公共事务。解振华任职发改委副主任并主管气候变化事务后,中国NGO在气候变化领域与政府的沟通日益通畅。中国高级谈判代表李高9月在北京说,2008年一次谈判后,发改委气候司组织了和NGO的通气会,给NGO通报情况。中国政府部门主动与NGO沟通,这在其他领域是极为罕见的。

       有分析人士认为,这主要有几种原因:一,解振华在环保总局工作期间,与NGO有良好的合作,认识到NGO能对环境治理起到重要作用;二,环境NGO的活动不涉及政治,而且都有与政府合作的强烈愿望;三,解振华及发改委气候司的人有国际视野,了解国外NGO的发展与作用,并不像一般的中国官员一样认为NGO另有政治目的。

       解振华在10月8日的会见中说,哥本哈根会议之前,他到美国去访问,和100多个美国NGO进行了对话,效果非常好。 他说,最近这些年,在环境保护和应对气候变化方面,中国的NGO发挥了很重要的作用。“我们希望NGO能成为社会、百姓、政府之间的桥梁和纽带。”

图片由卢思骋提供

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gaidee

难成气候

我们的社会性质决定了NGO难成大气候,恐怕在亚洲也是这样。这当然不是说NGO不好,或者无能,实际情况是我们的政府掌握着最充足的社会资源以及资源的调拨能力,要钱有钱、要人有人,什么都不缺,搞到现在也不过如此。反观我们的NGO,基本的生存条件都不具备,在节能减排的竞赛中,你怎么和政府竞争呢?谈到经济实力,美国的自然资源保护委员会(NRDC)有150万会员,每年的预算大约8000多万美元,有几十个律师。所以,可以在有些场合和政府PK一下。NGO的成功的基础在于有了民意的支持,以及乐意捐献的人民,目前看来我们还有很长的路要走,很长很长。

Difficult to amount to anything

The nature of our society renders it very difficult for NGOs to amount to anything. I'm afraid that it may well be the same in the rest of Asia. Of course, I'm not saying NGOs are bad, or useless, but the fact is that our government has a grip on the lion's share of societal resources and the means to allocate them: if they need money they can get it, if they need people they can get them - they lack for nothing, and this is the same even today.
On the other hand, even the most basic conditions for an NGO's survival are not fulfilled. How do you compete with the government in the race to save energy and reduce emissions? America's Natural Resources Defence Council (NRDC) has 1.5 million members, an annual budget of over 80 million dollars, and dozens of lawyers, so they have the economic clout to take on the government in this area. Public opinion and willing donors are the basis for an NGO's success. At the moment it looks like we have a long way to go, a very long way to go.

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gaidee

“和政府作对就是恶”吗?

这好像是大多数政府的共识。NGO看来和黑社会也差不多,只不过没有暴力而已。

“和政府作对就是恶”,是以权力作为判断“善恶”的唯一标准,这在逻辑上是说不通的,因为政府的权力不是“神授”,而是来自于人民,只有人民才是“善恶”的最终评判者。

政府不仅是可以反对的,更是可以更换的。依靠人民,尊重人民群众的主体地位,既是无产阶级和马克思主义政党最根本的群众观,也是中国革命事业和社会主义建设事业的宝贵经验。

"Against the government is evil"?

Apparently this is the consensus of most governments. It seems that NGOs are almost the same as the criminal underworld, it's just that they are not violent.

"Against the government is evil", is using power as the only standard for judging "good and evil", logically this does not make sense, because the power of the government is not “godlike", but rather comes from the people, and only the people can be the final judge of "good and evil".

The government is not only something you can resist, it is also something you can change. Relying on the people, respecting the mass of people and their primary position, since it is the proletariat that is the Marxist party's most fundamental mass base, is also the precious experience of China's revolutionary project and building socialism.